Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Politik, Política, Politique, Politica, Politics

A

Asylum (W3)

Dt. "Asyl", span. "asilo", frz. "Asile", "Asyle", ital. "asilo", engl. "Asylum", geht zurück auf lat. "asylum", griech. "ásylon" = "Unverletzliches". Es setzt sich zusammen aus "a-" = "nicht", und "sylon" = "Beschlagnahmung", "Plünderung", "Raub", "Beute". Asyl sollte also eigentlich "Schutz" bedeuten.

Das engl. "Asylum" fand ausgehend von Griechenland, über Rom und Frankreich schließlich um 1400 als "asyle" Aufnahme in England. Gleichzeitig fragte aber auch direkt das lateinische "asylum" um Aufnahme in England an. Aus dem Wettstreit der Asylanten ging engl. "Asylum" als Sieger hervor.

Um 1750, nachdem nur noch die Variante "Asylum" in Gebrauch war, nahm dieses nun noch eine zusätzlich Bedeutung an, als Aufnahme für psychisch Kranke, heute "psychiatric hospitals".

In ancient Greek the word for "right of seizure" was "sulon". So a-sulon meant "no right of seizure". People these days are still hiding out in churches and claiming asylum with this meaning.

(E?)(L?) http://www.asylum.com/


(E?)(L?) http://de.asylum.com/
Das Asyl für Männer.

(E?)(L?) http://atilf.atilf.fr/gsouvay/scripts/dmfX.exe?LEX_ENTREE_INITIALES;BALISE=ETYM;OUVRIR_MENU=MENU_LEXIQUE;s=s0a1e2ad0;ISIS=isis_dmf2009L.txt;s=s0a1e2ad0;;ISIS=isis_dmf2009L.txt


(E?)(L?) http://atilf.atilf.fr/gsouvay/scripts/dmfX.exe?LEX_ENTREE_INITIALES;BALISE=ETYM;BACK;;ISIS=isis_dmf2009L.txt;OUVRIR_MENU=3;s=s0a1e2ad0;


(E1)(L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/1015.html


(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=asylum


(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=asylum


(E?)(L?) http://www.moviemaze.de/media/trailer/


(E?)(L?) http://www.museumofhoaxes.com/hoax/weblog/permalink/wakerich_asylum/
2004 October: Wakerich Asylum for the Criminally Insane

(E?)(L?) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06159a.htm

Foundling Asylums - Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or guardians are unable or unwilling to care for them.


(E?)(L?) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08038b.htm

Insane, Asylums and Care for the - The Church, from the earliest times, arranged for the care of the insane.


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/
right of asylum

(E?)(L?) http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Asylum


(E?)(L?) http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Arkham+Asylum
Arkham Asylum

(E?)(L?) http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Asylum+seeker
Asylum seeker

(E1)(L1) http://www.worldwidewords.org/


B

bartleby003
Milton, John
Areopagitica

(E?)(L?) https://www.bartleby.com/hc/


(E?)(L?) https://www.bartleby.com/3/3/

Harvard Classics, Vol. 3, Part 3
Areopagitica
Order of the Long Parliament for the Regulating of Printing, 14 June, 1643
A Speech for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing
This written oration responds to attempts of the day to “license,” or ban, religious and political writings; however, it remains the starting point for freedom of the press debate.

CONTENTS

Bibliographic Record
NEW YORK: P.F. COLLIER & SON COMPANY, 1909-14
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2001




(E?)(L?) https://www.bartleby.com/people/Milton-J.html
John Milton

bartleby003
Milton, John
Tractate on Education
From the Edition of 1673

(E?)(L?) https://www.bartleby.com/hc/


(E?)(L?) https://www.bartleby.com/3/4/

Harvard Classics, Vol. 3, Part 4
In the vein of Plato’s Republic before it and Rousseau’s Emile after, On Education is a personal epistle aimed at the training of youth in the classic and poetic traditions as well as the future of scientific studies.

CONTENTS

Bibliographic Record
NEW YORK: P.F. COLLIER & SON COMPANY, 1909-14
NEW YORK: BARTLEBY.COM, 2001




(E?)(L?) https://www.bartleby.com/people/Milton-J.html
John Milton

C

choice (W3)

(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?l=c&p=12


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=choice
Das engl. "choice" geht auf ein gotisches "*kausjan" = "probieren", "testen" zurück.

D

disenfranchise, disfranchise, enfranchise (W3)

Die ursprüngliche Form war das seit 1467 nachweisbare "disfranchise"

"disfranchise" = "To deprive of a privilege, an immunity, or a right of citizenship, especially the right to vote".

(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=disenfranchise


(E?)(L?) http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/disenfranchise
Das seit 1644 nachweisbare auf frz. "franche" = "frei" zurückgehende "disenfranchise" ("dis" + "enfranchise") könnte etwa mit "entfreien" übersetzt werden. Gemeint ist damit der Entzug des Wahlrechts.

(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E1)(L1) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=enfranchise


(E?)(L?) http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/booksellers/press_release/100words/


(E?)(L?) http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/enfranchise


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/awad/archives/0600
Das engl. "enfranchise" bedeutet "jemandem die Bürgerrechte übertragen", insbesondere "jemandem das Wahlrecht verleihen".
Das seit 1531 nachweisbare "enfranchise" geht zurück auf altfrz. "enfranchir" = "to set free" = "die Freiheit geben".

Was mich überrascht, ist dass der Entzug der Freiheitsrechte "disfranchise" (1467) früher nachweisbar ist als die Verleihung der Freiheitsrechte "enfranchise" (1531). Daraus könnte man eigentlich schließen, dass ursprünglich alle per Geburt die Freiheitsrechte besaßen.

E

Emigration (W3)

Der Begriff dt. "Emigration", engl. "Emigration" (1640s), frz. "Émigration" (1752), geht zurück auf lat. "emigratio" = dt. "wegziehen" und setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "-é-" = lat. "-ex-" = dt. "außerhalb", "aus ... heraus", "hinaus", "außer" und lat. "migratio" = dt. "Wanderung", "Auswanderung". Von "Emigration" spricht man, wenn jemand aus seinem Vaterland wegzieht. Eine Emigration kann freiwillig oder erzwungen sein.

(E2)(L1) http://web.archive.org/web/20120331173214/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Emigration


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080718023146/https://www.bartleby.com/68/


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20080627174433/www.bartleby.com/68/69/2169.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/emigration.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=emigration


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/d
Delany, Martin Robison, 1812-1885: The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States (English) (as Author)

(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/w
Wentworth, William Charles, 1790-1872: With a Particular Enumeration of the Advantages Which These Colonies Offer for Emigration, and Their Superiority in Many Respects Over Those Possessed by the United States of America (English) (as Author)

(E?)(L?) http://www.investopedia.com/terms/e/emigration.asp


(E?)(L?) http://www.loc.gov/rr/genealogy/bib_guid/hispanic/fromspain.html

Emigration From Spain: ispanic Local History and Genealogy in the United States - ...
Bibliography listing titles for research on two primary topics: histories of American families of Hispanic origin, and histories of places in the United States settled by people of Hispanic origin.


(E?)(L?) http://www.samueljohnson.com/topics.html
Emigration (see also opinions of other Peoples and Places)

(E?)(L?) http://www.samueljohnson.com/emigrati.html


(E?)(L?) http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1019&context=onlinedictinvertzoology


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldmapper.org/atozindex.html
Emigration | Map 16 International Emigrants | Map 18 Net Emigration | Map 18 Net Emigration

Erstellt: 2011-01

F

fame (W3)

Engl. "fame" = dt. "Ruhm", "Berühmtheit" geht zurück auf lat. "fama" = dt. "Ruf". "Fama" war auch der Name der "Göttin des Gerüchts".

Erstellt: 2010-10

G

H

I

Immigration (W3)

Engl. "Immigration" setzt sich zusammen aus lat. "-im-" und lat. "migratio" = "Wanderung", lat. "migrare" = "wandern", "wegziehen".

(E?)(L?) http://www.davidsonmorris.com/appeals/glossary.htm

DavidsonMorris Solicitors - UK immigration law


Erstellt: 2010-10

isolationist (W3)

Im amerikanischen Englisch findet man das Substantiv engl. "isolationist" seit 1899/1898. Zu Grunde liegt engl. "isolation", das seinerseits auf französische Vermittlung zurück geht. Man findet engl. "isolationist" auch als Adjektiv (dt. "isolationistisch").

(E?)(L2) http://www.britannica.com/

isolationist (politics)


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2004-May/subject.html

Antedating of "Isolationist" Fred Shapiro

isolationist (OED 1899)

1898 "Chicago Daily Tribune" 4 Sept. 30 The anti-extensionists - the mugwumps and Bryanites - use the term "imperialist" by applying it to everybody who is not an "isolationist".

Fred Shapiro


(E?)(L?) http://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/phylum#word=A




(E?)(L?) https://www.yourdictionary.com/




(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=isolationist
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "isolationist" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1710 / 1920 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#isolationist

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2015-12

J

K

king (W3)

The word "king" is related to "kin". Presumably, the first kings led a single tribe who all considered each other to be kin. ("kin" = "blood relations" = "die Verwandtschaft")

Der König war also ursprünglich nur ein "Familienvorstand".

L

Lobby, Lobbyismus (W1)

(E3)(L1) http://www.hanisauland.de/info/allebegriffe.html

...
Das englische Wort "Lobby" bezeichnete ursprünglich den Vorraum oder die Eingangshalle des englischen Parlamentsgebäudes. Dort unterhielten sich die Abgeordneten mit Personen, die keine gewählten Abgeordneten waren und daher nicht in den Sitzungssaal durften.
Heute bezeichnet der Begriff "Lobby" eine Interessenvertretung in der Politik.
...


Die "Lobby" geht ihrerseits zurück auf lat. "lobia" = "Galerie", "Laube", soll aber einen germanischen Ursprung haben.

M

N

O

Opportunities (W3)

Anscheinend gibt es immer weniger "Gelegenheiten", sonst lässt es sich nicht erklären, dass sich mittlerweile eine eigene Spezies herausgebildet hat, die sich dadurch auszeichnet, einen ausgeprägten Sinn für günstige Gelegenheiten zu haben und der Fähigkeit, diese zu nutzen: die "Opportunitytaker". Das sind so etwas wie Lebenskünstler, die in hierarchiefreien Netzwerken win-win-Situationen schaffen.
Damit hat sich der ursprünglich negativ besetzte "Opportunist" der sich bedenkenlos jeder Situation anpasst, im wirtschaftlichen Haifischbecken zu einem kooperativen Schnäppchenjäger gewandelt.

Das lat. "opportunus" bedeutet "zur Einfahrt bequem" von "portus" = "Hafen" und "porta" = "Eingang". Sollte also ein Opportunist etwa nur darauf warten eine günstige Gelegenheit zu finden, um sein Schiffchen ins Trockene zu bringen?
Ach nein - das sind ja die Schäfchen.

P

potentate (W3)

Der dt. "Potentat", frz. "potentat", engl. "potentate" = dt. "Machthaber", "Herrscher", "souveräner, regierender Fürst", geht über altfrz. "potentat" zurück auf lat. "potentatus" = dt. "Macht", "Oberherrschaft", "Souveränität" und weiter auf lat. "potens" = dt. "potent", "stark", "mächtig".

Der Zusammenhang zu lat. "esse" bzw. ide. "*es-" = "sein" wird dadurch erklärt, dass das zu Grunde liegende lat. "potis" = dt. "vermögend", "mächtig" als Zusammensetzung von ide. "*poti" = "selbst" und ide. "*es-", "*hes-" = "sein", interpretiert wird, was also die Bedeutung dt. "selbst sein" ergibt.

"potentate": a ruler who is unconstrained by law.

A potentate is a person so powerful that he or she doesn't have to follow the rules that govern everyone else. Potentate normally refers to a king or dictator, but you can call anyone with virtually unlimited power a potentate. Engl. "potentate" is related to "potent", "powerful," and "potential", "having possibility" or "having capability".

The king of a country, the conductor of an orchestra, the commander of a battleship — all of these are examples of a potentate. Take a look at "potentate", and you'll see the word "potent", which means "powerful", as in "that's one potent cup o' joe!". It's easy to see, then, how "potent" becomes "potentate" just by adding a few letters. A potentate is a powerful person.

In einem englischen Beitrag wird auf das dt. "Hottentottenpotentatentantenattentat" hingewiesen, das für dt. "Hottentotten-potentaten-tanten-attentat" steht. (s. Link unten "blog.inkyfool.com")

(E?)(L?) https://www.anagrams.net/potentate

We've got 188 anagrams for potentate

Any good anagrams for potentate?

This page list all the various possible anagrams for the word potentate. Use it for solving word puzzles, scrambles and for writing poetry, lyrics for your song or coming up with rap verses.


(E?)(L?) http://www.classicsunveiled.com/romevd/html/derivp.html

potentate (possum)

"potis": "dispossess", "empower", "high-powered", "horsepower", "impossibility", "impossible", "impotent", "omnipotence", "omnipotent", "overpower", "plenipotentiary", "possess", "possession", "possessive", "possessor", "possibility", "possible", "possibly", "potency", "potent", "potentate", "potential", "potentiality", "potentially", "power", "powerful", "powerfully", "powerless", "prepossess", "prepossession", "puissance", "puissant", "repossess", "self-possession"


(E?)(L?) https://www.dailywritingtips.com/50-synonyms-for-leader/

50 Synonyms for “Leader”
...
35. "Potentate": a powerful sovereign
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.definitions.net/definition/potentate

Definitions for "potentate"


(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/browse/potentate

"potentate", noun, a person who possesses great power, as a sovereign, monarch, or ruler.

Origin of potentate

1350–1400; Middle English - Late Latin "potentatus" = "potentate", Latin: "power", "dominion". See "potent" (1), "-ate" (3)

Words nearby potentate:

"potemkin", "potemkin village", "potence", "potency", "potent", "potentate", "potential", "potential cautery", "potential difference", "potential divider", "potential energy"

Words related to potentate

"despot", "king", "majesty", "ruler", "queen", "autocrat", "sovereign", "empress", "chief", "royalty", "dictator", "chieftain", "emperor", "prince", "leader", "princess"
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/potentate

"potentate" (n.), c. 1400, from Old French "potentat" and directly from Late Latin "potentatus" = "a ruler", also "political power", from Latin "potentatus" = "might", "power", "rule", "dominion", from "potentem" (nominative "potens") = "powerful", from "potis" = "powerful", "able", "capable"; "possible"; of persons, "better", "preferable"; "chief", "principal"; "strongest", "foremost", from PIE root "*poti-" = "powerful"; "lord".

Related Entries


(E?)(L?) https://www.etymonline.com/word/*poti-

"*poti-", "*poti-" : Proto-Indo-European root meaning "powerful"; "lord". 

It forms all or part of: "bashaw"; "compos mentis"; "despot"; "hospodar"; "host" (n.1) "person who receives guests"; "idempotent"; "impotent"; "omnipotent"; "pasha"; "plenipotentiary"; "posse"; "possess"; "possible"; "potence"; "potency"; "potent"; "potentate"; "potential"; "potentiate"; "potentiometer"; "power"; "totipotent".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit "patih" = "master", "husband"; Greek "posis", Lithuanian "patis" = "husband"; Latin "potis" = "powerful", "able", "capable"; "possible".

Words related to "*poti-"


(E?)(L?) https://blog.inkyfool.com/2011/08/trepignemanpenillorifrizonoufresterfumb.html

Friday, 12 August 2011

Trepignemanpenillorifrizonoufresterfumbled

So we come to the Friday of our week of sesquipedalianism. We've had "Hottentottenpotentatentantenattentat", floccinaucinihilipilification, Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch and osseocarnisanguineoviscericartilaginonervomedullary.

But as you have probably noticed, the thing about long words is that you can just keep making them up for a laugh. In one short chapter of Urquhart's translation of Rabelais you can find the words disincornifistibulated, esperruquanchuzelubelouzerireliced, morrambouzevezengouzequoquemorgasacbaquevezinemaffreliding, morcrocastebezasteverestegrigeligoscopapopondrillated and morderegripippiatabirofreluchamburelurecaquelurintimpaniments. None of these words means anything much at all, except in context.

My favourite from that chapter (which you can read the whole of here) is this little beauty:

The bride crying laughed, and laughing cried, because the catchpole was not satisfied with drubbing her without choice or distinction of members, but had also rudely roused and toused her, pulled off her topping, and not having the fear of her husband before his eyes, treacherously trepignemanpenillorifrizonoufresterfumbled tumbled and squeezed her lower parts. [...] But, said his lady, why hath he been so very liberal of his manual kindness to me, without the least provocation?

Have a good weekend, dear reader, may it be filled with joy, trepignemanpenillorifrizonoufresterfumbling and manual kindness.


(E?)(L?) https://blog.inkyfool.com/2011/08/floccinaucinihilipilification.html

Tuesday, 9 August 2011

Floccinaucinihilipilification

The second in our week of long words is floccinaucinihilipilification, which is the act of believing something to be worthless. Unlike yesterday's "Hottentottenpotentatentantenattentat", floccinaucinihilipilification is actually rather useful. You can say: "I was very offended by his floccinaucinihilipilification of my poetry."

In fact, I once managed to work floccinaucinihilipilification into an essay at university - the context was something along the lines of "Goneril and Regan's floccinaucinihilipilification of kingship". Bill Clinton's press secretary managed it too. Whilst talking about the economy in 1995 he said:

They happen to produce huge billion dollar differences over seven years in the federal budget, which is why they become fairly incendiary as the debate goes along. But if you—as a practical matter of estimating the economy, the difference is not great. There's a little bit of floccinaucinihilipilification going on here.

The etymology is quite simple: it's four Latin words that all meant worthless: flocci means a tuft of wool (as in floccilation which I wrote about here), nauci means trifle, nihil means nothing and pili means a hair. These were all synonyms to the Romans, and were listed together in a standard Latin textbook of the eighteenth century. Hence the word.

There's a related verb, floccipend, which means to regard as insignificant. And even more lovely, if you are lady habitually given to floccinaucinihilipilification, you are a floccinaucinihilipilificatrix.


(E?)(L?) https://blog.inkyfool.com/2011/08/long-words-and-unfortunate-aunts.html

Monday, 8 August 2011

Long Words and Unfortunate Aunts

We're going to have a week of posts on long, jormungandrian words. And we shall start with the dead relative of a Khoekhoe king.

The Khoekhoe are a people of Southern Africa. Like their neighbours, the San, they use a peculiar clicking sound in their language that sounds utterly alien to European ears. This is probably the reason that Dutch explorers called them "stutterers" or "Hottentots". If you want to read some other theories about the etymology follow this link.

The word "Hottentot" spread among European languages, probably just because it's such a lovely word to say aloud, and thus it got into German. The German language is remarkably open to the formation of compound words, and making up long silly ones is something of a parlour game beyond the Rhine. So, though the word was only invented as a tongue twister, "Hottentottenpotentatentantenattentat" is a perfectly viable German word. It means the assassination of the aunt of a Hottentot pontentate. "Tante" is aunt and "attentat" is assassination.

It's 36 letters long, but only uses 7 letters to get there. Incidentally, the adjective of "Hottentot" is, or can be, "Hottentotic".

And here is a useful video on how to do the clicky sounds.




(E?)(L?) http://www.koeblergerhard.de/mnd/mnd.html

mndt. "potentate", "potentante", mnd., M.: nhd. "Potentat", "höchster geistlicher oder weltlicher Herrscher", "Machthaber";

Hinweis: vgl. mhd. "potestat";

Quellenangaben: Nic. Gryse (um 1600);

Etymologie: s. lat. "potentator", M., "Gewalthaber", "Potentat"?; vgl. lat. "posse", V., "können", "vermögen", "imstande sein" (V.), "verstehen", "gelten"; lat. "potis", Adj., "vermögend", "mächtig"; s. idg. "*poti", Pron., Adj., "selbst", Pokorny 842; lat. "esse", V., "sein" (V.); idg. "*es-", "*hes-", V., "sein" (V.), Pokorny 340;

Weiterleben: s. nhd. "Potentat", M., "Potentat", "Machthaber", DW 13, 2038?;

Literaturhinweise:

Sonstiges: Fremdwort in mnd. Form, "potentaten" (Pl.), "potentante" örtlich beschränkt und jünger


(E?)(L?) https://learning.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/08/word-of-the-day-potentate/?searchResultPosition=1

Word of the Day: "potentate"

By The Learning Network October 8, 2010 12:09 am

"potentate", noun: a ruler who is unconstrained by law

The word "potentate" has appeared in 12 New York Times articles in the past year, including on March 5 in “State Visit Revives a History of Stereotypes,” by Alan Cowell:

As the gilded, horse-drawn carriages processed down the Mall and through the gates of Buckingham Palace, escorted by equestrian guards bearing swords, most Londoners were probably too world-weary to see anything unusual in one more state visit unfolding — one more overseas "potentate" embraced by the pomp and circumstance that Britain’s royals have learned over decades to do so well.


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

"potentates" occurs 3 times in 3 speeches within 3 works.

Possibly related words: "potent", "potently", "potents"




(E?)(L?) http://www.prefixsuffix.com/rootchart.php?navblks=1011000

...
engl. "pot" = "power"

Examples: "potential", "potentate", "impotent"
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.synonyms.com/synonym/potentate

Synonyms for "potentate"


(E?)(L?) http://www.verbatimmag.com/29_2.pdf

...
In the same issue, Jacqueline Schaalje notes how Dutch can fuse words almost ad infinitum into compound nouns, as in "muisklikactivisme" "mousemuisklikactivisme" "mousemuisklikactivisme click activism". That compounding is part of the genius of Germanic languages generally (as distinct from Romance languages, say): consider the standard apocryphal example in German, "Hottentottenpotentatenmutterattentätertöten" = "killing the assassin of a Hottentot potentate’s mother", or the Icelandic "bílvélaíhlutaframleiðsluaðferðir" = "manufacturing processes for car-engine components".
...


(E1)(L1) http://www.visualthesaurus.com/portlets/wod/?y=2013&m=10&d=1&mode=m

Thursday, October 10th

"potentate"

No one actually runs for office to be elected as a "potentate" since that strategy would probably fail. Clever leaders who achieve the status normally do so only after power is consolidated. "Potentate", a "powerful leader", is an obvious derivative of "potent". Both words are from Latin. Though the thing it designates surely existed long before, "potentate" only settled in English in the 15th century.


(E?)(L?) https://www.visualthesaurus.com/?word=potentate

engl. "potentate"


(E?)(L?) https://wordinfo.info/results/potentate

...
3. Etymology: from Latin "potentatus", "rule", "political power" from Latin "potens", "powerful", "strong".


(E?)(L?) http://wordquests.info/cgi/ice2-for.cgi?KEYWORDS=potentate




(E?)(L?) http://wordquests.info/cgi/ice2-for.cgi?file=/hsphere/local/home/scribejo/wordquests.info/htm/d0000229.htm&HIGHLIGHT=potentate

"-ate" (Latin: a suffix; being, like, or possessing certain characteristics).

abdicate | abnegate | abrogate | accelerate | accentuate | acetate | adjudicate | aerate | alkylate | alleviate | allocate | aluminate | amalgamate | annihilate | associate | barbiturate | bicarbonate | bisulphate | borate | bromate | captivate | carbamate | carbonate | compensate | concentrate | consulate | cyclamate | delegate | detoxicate | electorate | ethanoate | evaporate | ferrate | glutamate | glutamate | graduate | hydrate | liberate | magistrate | medicate | monosodium | nitrate | opiate | phosphate | placate | potentate | prevaricate | primate | propanoate | salivate | senate | silicate | sulfate | sulphonate | thiosulphate | triumvirate | vaccinate | venerate | xanthate | abbreviate | accurate | adulterate | affectionate | alternate | caudate | celibate | chalybeate | chelate | chlorate | chromate | collegiate | compassionate | confederate | delicate | desolate | dispassionate | fortunate | illiterate | indiscriminate | irate | obstinate | passionate | sedate |


(E?)(L?) http://wordquests.info/cgi/ice2-for.cgi?file=/hsphere/local/home/scribejo/wordquests.info/htm/L-Gk-archy-A-K.htm&HIGHLIGHT=potentate

Archy Words: "anarch" to "kritarchy", Part 1 of 2.

"-arch", "-archic", "-archical", "-archism", "-archist", "-archy" (Greek: "govern", "rule"; "ruler", "chief" ["first in position"]).

anarch | anarchic | anarchism | anarchist | anarchy | antimonarchy | archmonarchy | aristarchy | aristomonarchy | autarch | autarchy | biarchy | chiliarch | chiliarchy | cannonarchy | cosmarchy | cryptarchy | decarch | decarchy, dekarchy, decadarchy | decadarch | demarchy | demonarchy | diabolarchy | diarch | diarchy, duarchy | dodecarchy | dyarchy | ecclesiarch | ecclesiarchy | endarchy | ennearchy | eparchy | ethnarch | ethnarchy | gynandrarchy | gynarchy | hagiarchy | hamarchy | hecatarchy, hecatonarchy, hecatontarchy | hendecarchy | heptarch | heptarchy | heroarchy | hexarchy | hierarch | hierarchy | hipparch | hipparchy | hyperanarchy | hyperarchy | iatrarchy | ichthyarchy | kritarchy |


(E?)(L?) http://wordquests.info/cgi/ice2-for.cgi?file=/hsphere/local/home/scribejo/wordquests.info/htm/d0001736.htm&HIGHLIGHT=potentate

"poten-", "pot-", "poss-", "-potent", "-potence", "-potency", "-potential" (Latin: "power", "strength", "ability").

ignipotent | impossibility | impotence | impotency | impotent | magnipotence | omnipotence | omnipotent | plenipotentiary | posse (posse comitatus), possess | possession | possible | possibly | potency | potent | potentate | potential | potentiality | potentiometer | potestate | prepotent | viripotency | viripotent |


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordsmith.org/words/potentate.html

"potentate"

MEANING: noun: One having great power, especially an autocratic person.

ETYMOLOGY: Via French, from Latin "posse" ("to be able"). Ultimately from the Indo-European root "poti-" ("powerful", "lord"), which is also the source of "power", "potent", "possess", "pasha", "compossible", "impuissance", and "puissant". Earliest documented use: 1475.
...


(E?)(L?) http://wordsmith.org/words/potentate.mp3

Pronunciation: "potentate"


(E?)(L?) https://www.yourdictionary.com/potentate

...
Origin of "potentate"

Middle English "potentat" from Old French from Late Latin "potentatus" from Latin "potens" present participle of "posse" = "to be able"; see "potent".
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=potentate
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "potentate" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 auf.

Erstellt: 2020-03

pressure groups (W3)

(E3)(L1) http://www.hanisauland.de/info/allebegriffe.html

...
Wenn "Interessenverbände" besonders stark sind und versuchen, auf Politik und Gesetzgebung Einfluss zu nehmen, werden sie auch als "pressure groups" bezeichnet. (Das Wort kommt aus dem Englischen und heißt wörtlich übersetzt "Druckgruppen", also Leute, die Druck ausüben.)
...


Primrose League (W3)

Die engl. "Primrose League", (dt. "Primelliga") wurde im Jahr 1883 von Lord R. Churchill gegründet. In ihr schlossen sich Konservative Mitglieder zu einer Wählerorganisation der Konservativen Partei zusammen. Die Bezeichnung "Primrose League" bezieht sich auf das Abzeichen ("Primel") des Vereins.

(E2)(L1) http://web.archive.org/web/20120331173214/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/The Primrose League

...
The primrose is associated with the name of Lord Beaconsfield (q.v.), as being preferred by him to other flowers.
...


(E?)(L1) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/chzRW7nYTgSCTx06CEYm0A

Medals from WW1 This collection includes a PL (Primrose League founded by Disraeli), a regimental badge for Royal Staffordshire, a ... Contributed by Individual


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=8&content=Primrose League
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Primrose League" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1890 auf.

Erstellt: 2012-10

Q

Quorum (W3)

Ein "Quorum" ist die zur Beschlussfähigkeit notwendige Anzahl von Stimmen oder stimmberechtigten Teilnehmern einer Körperschaft bzw. eines Gremiums.

Das "Quorum" geht zurück auf lat. "quorum" = "deren", Gen. Pl. von "qui" = "der". Das "Quorum" sind also "die, deren (Stimmen zählen)". In die europäischen Sprachen kam es anscheinend durch englische Vermittlung, wo es im 17.Jh. in Politik und Rechtssprechung in Erscheinung trat. Zuvor war engl. "quorum", ab dem 15. Jh. lediglich als Genitiv Plural des lateinischen Pronomen "qui" = "who" benutzt worden.

Das lat. "quorum" geht weiter zurück auf ide. "*kwo-", "*kwi-", aus dem u.a. folgende Wörter hervorgingen:

engl. "aliquot", engl. "cooncan", engl. "cue", engl. "-cuter", engl. "either", from Old English "ever each of two", griech. "posos", engl., span. "hidalgo" = "Sohn von etwas", engl. "how", engl. "kickshaw", engl. "necuter", engl. "neither", engl. "neuter", engl. "posology", engl. "qua", lat. "qualis", engl. "quality", engl. "quam", lat. "quando", engl. "quantity", lat. "quantus", engl. "quasi", lat. "quasi", lat. "quem", lat. "qui", engl. "quibble", lat. "quid", engl. "quiddity", engl. "quidnunc", engl. "quip", lat. "quod", engl. "quodlibet", lat. "quom", engl. "quondam", engl. "quorum", lat. "quot", engl. "quote", engl. "quotidian", engl. "quotient", lat. "ubi" (becoming "-cubi" in such compounds as "alicubi", from which "ubi" was abstracted out by false segmentation, perhaps under the influence of "ibi", there), engl. "ubiquity", lat. "uter" (abstracted out by false segmentation), engl. "what", engl. "when", engl. "whence", engl. "where", engl. "whether", engl. "which", engl. "whither", engl. "who", engl. "whom", engl. "whose", engl. "why", engl. "cheese"

(E1)(L1) http://web.archive.org/web/*/https://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE258.html


(E1)(L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/13970.html


(E?)(L1) https://www.bartleby.com/176/64.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/etymologie/quorum

Étymol. et Hist. 1672 "justiciers du Quorum" (en Angleterre) « notables dont la présence est indispensable pour qu'une commission puisse siéger » (E. Chamberlayne, L'Estat présent d'Angleterre, t. 2, p. 105);
...
Mot lat. quorum "desquels", "dont", génitif plur. du pron. rel. "qui" (fr. "qui") empr. par l'intermédiaire de l'angl. où il est att. dep. 1616 comme terme désignant le nombre de personnes requises dans une assemblée, et dep. 1455 comme désignation d'un juge dont la présence au tribunal est indispensable.
Cet empl. de quorum vient des formules de lat. médiév. "telles que quorum maxima pars..." = "dont la plus grande partie... ", "quorum vos ... unum (duos, etc.) esse volumus" = "dont nous voulons que vous soyiez un (deux, etc.)", et qui indiquaient la présence nécessaire de certaines personnes dans des commissions (NED; FEW t. 18, p. 100 b).


(E?)(L?) http://www.cnrtl.fr/definition/quorum


(E?)(L?) http://www.c-span.org/guide/congress/glossary/alphalist.htm
ABSENCE OF A QUORUM | DISAPPEARING QUORUM | LIVE QUORUM | NOTICE QUORUM CALL | QUORUM - HOUSE | QUORUM - SENATE | QUORUM CALL - HOUSE | QUORUM CALL - SENATE

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=quorum

...
"the justices of the quorum". Meaning "fixed number of members whose presence is necessary to transact business" is first recorded 1616.
...


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=quorum


(E1)(L1) http://etimologias.dechile.net/?quo.rum
quórum

(E?)(L?) http://www.liaretta.co.cc/gene_moutoux/latinderivatives.htm


(E?)(L?) http://www-306.ibm.com/software/globalization/terminology/index.jsp
quorum disk | quorum index | quorum node (quorum resource)

(E?)(L?) http://www.linotype.com/search-alpha-q.html
Die Schriftfamilie "ITC Quorum™"

(E?)(L?) http://www.onelook.com/?w=quorum&loc=wotd
We found 51 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word "quorum".

(E1)(L1) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=573


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/


(E?)(L?) http://dictionary.reference.com/wordoftheday/archive/2005/09/15.html


(E1)(L1) http://www.wortwarte.de/
Quorumsprache

(E1)(L1) http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/epc/langueXIX/dg/08_t1-2.htm


R

round robin (W3)

Eine Quelle verweist darauf, dass engl. "round robin" (neben "Jake in the boxe") bereits seit dem 16. Jh. (1546) nachweisbar ist, als umgangssprachliche, etwas abwertende, Bezeichnung für die Abendmahlshostie.

Engl. "round robin" (1730) = dt. "Petition", "Denkschrift", "Rundbrief" geht auf die Verballhornung von frz. "ruban rond" = dt. "rundes Band" zurück (vgl. engl. "ribbon"). Ursprünglich war es ein Verfahren französischer Bauern im 17., 18. Jh. Um bei Petitionen keinen Wortführer erkennen zu lassen unterschrieb man im Kreis, so dass nicht erkennbar war, wer als erstes unterschrieben hatte. Im englischen wurde aus frz. "ruban rond", engl. "round ruban", das dann zu "round robin" verballhornt wurde.

Um 1895 wurde die Bezeichnung "round robin" auch in den Sport übertragen, wo er etwa die Bedeutung dt. "Rundenturnier" hat.

In der Computerei bezeichnet engl. "round robin" ein Verfahren, bei dem Programme nacheinander, im Kreis, zeitscheibchenweis, die Hardware-Ressourcen nutzen können.

In "Cassell’s Dictionary of Slang" (Jonathan Green, 2nd Edition, 2005) findet man es als Verb (ab etwa 1960) zur Bezeichnung eines sexuellen Ringelreins.

Auch eine literarische Form, bei der ein Schreiber eine Geschichte beginnt, die dann von anderen Schreibern fortgeführt wird, wird als "Round robin" bezeichnet.

Assoziieren kann man damit auch engl. "robin" = dt. "Rotkehlchen", das auch die "amerikanische Wanderdrossel" bezeichnet und somit auch als "rundwandernde Drossel" interpretiert werden könnte. Aber das ist lediglich eine private Gedächtnisstütze.

(E1)(L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/14554.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.bkgm.com/glossary.html
Das engl. "Round Robin Format" findet man beim Backgammon-Spiel.

(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=round robin


(E3)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/5402
Title: 1811 Dictionary Of The Vulgar Tongue
Author: Grose, Francis, 1731?-1791

(E?)(L?) http://jargonf.org/wiki/round_robin


(E?)(L?) http://www.lib.ru/ENGLISH/american_idioms.txt


(E?)(L?) http://www.owad.de/owad-archive-quiz.php4?id=2105


(E?)(L?) http://www.randomhouse.com/wotd/index.pperl?date=20010426


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/round+robin


(E1)(L1) http://www.takeourword.com/Issue033.html
Issue 33 Spotlight The Fabric of Words, Part III of III

(E?)(L1) https://whatis.techtarget.com/definitionsAlpha/0,289930,sid9_alpR,00.html


(E?)(L?) https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci214491,00.html


(E?)(L1) https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/R/Round_Robin_DNS.html
Als engl. "round robin DNS" wird ein Verfahren bezeichnet, bei dem der "Domain Name System" rotierend zugewiesen wird.

(E?)(L?) http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_Robin

Round Robin ist


(E6)(L1) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/letters/R.html
Round Robin Tournament, SEE: Tournament

(E?)(L?) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Tournament.html

...
Tournaments (also called tournament graphs) are so named because an n-node tournament graph correspond to a tournament in which each member of a group of n players plays all other n-1 players, and each game results in a win for one player and a loss for the other.
...


(E1)(L1) http://www.word-detective.com/back-m.html#robin


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordorigins.org/index.php/site/round_robin/


Erstellt: 2010-12

S

sexymp
Sexy Members of Parliament

(E?)(L?) http://www.sexymp.co.uk/

In addition to my wanting to create a fun and memorable tool to help the British public get to know their Members of Parliament, I thought it would be an interesting opportunity to hold the first ever parliamentary beauty contest and find out once and for all which MPs and Parties have the most sex-appeal. Although I fully expect this to offend some people, this was never my intention and I hope you will see the funny side.

Enjoy, Francis Boulle


Erstellt: 2012-12

T

U

V

W

wretched
wretch
Recke
Rächer
Wrack
urgere (W3)

Engl. "wretched", altengl. "wrecched" (1200) = dt. "deprimiert", "dürftig", "ekelhaft", "elend", "erbärmlich", "gesundheitlich elend", "jämmerlich", "miserabel", "scheußlich", "schlecht", "unangenehm", "unglücklich", ist keine Verbform, sondern ein Adjektiv, das bereits um 1200 aus dem ursprünglichen Adjektiv engl. "wretch" (mit gleicher Bedeutung) mit dem Suffix "-ed" erweitert wurde.

Das Substantiv engl. "wretch" bezeichnete ursprünglich ein dt. "Verbannter", "im Exil Lebender", hat aber mittlerweile die Bedeutung dt. "armer Teufel", "armer Schlucker", "Wicht", "Schuft", "Blödmann", "Schlingel" angenommen (engl. "wretchedness" = dt. "Armseligkeit")

Interessant ist die Verwandtschaft von engl. "wretched", die man im Deutschen als dt. "Recke", "rächen", "Wrack" findet.

Die Verbindung führt zunächst zurück zu altengl. "wrecca" = engl. "wretch", dt. "Fremder", "Flüchtling", "Verbannter", "Exil", "Verbannung", und weiter auf ein urgerm. "*wrakjon" = dt. "Verfolger", "Verfolgter". Daraus entwickelte sich auch altsächs. "wrekkio" = dt. "Fremdling", althdt. "reckeo", mhdt. "recke" = "Vertriebener", "Verbannter", "Verbannung", "Flüchtling".

Und der Nachfolger - in dem man eher einen "Abenteurer" sah - war dann dt. "Recke" - ursprünglich also ein "Verbannter", dann aber - ein "angesehener Krieger", ja sogar dt. "Held". In England entwickelte sich eine pejorative Variante altengl. "wreccan" = dt. "verdrängen", "vertreiben", "bestrafen", "ahnden", das man heute auch noch in engl. "wreak" = dt. "Rache üben", "seine Wut auslassen", "sich für etwas rächen", wiederfinden kann.

In diesem Beispiel hat es der "(ins Ausland) Verbannte", "Verfolgte", der "Recke", zu Ansehen gebracht. Daß aber das Leben im Ausland eher mit negativen Folgen assoziiert wurde kann man an dt. "Elend" erkennen, das ursprünglich als ahdt. "elilenti", asächs. "eli-lendi" = dt. "in fremdem Land", "aus dem Land gewiesen" bedeutete, was zu "Elend" führte.

Ein weiterer Familienangehöriger ist dt. "Rache" bzw. "rächen", das auf die ältere Bedeutung dt. "vertreiben", "verfolgen" zurück geht. Man findet es als althdt. "rahha" = dt. "Rache", "Strafe", got. "wrekei" = dt. "Verfolgung", mhdt. "rechen", althdt. "rehhan" = dt. "vergelten", "rächen", "strafen", got. "wrikan" = dt. "verfolgen", altengl. "wrecan" = dt. "treiben", "stoßen", "vertreiben", "rächen", "strafen", altisl. "reka" = dt. "treiben", "jagen", "verfolgen",

Ein weiterer Verwandter ist dt. "Wrack", das Anfang des 18. Jh. ins Hochdeutsche getrieben wurde. Ältere Formen sind mndt. "wrack", ndl. "wrak" = dt. "Wrack", engl. "wrack", schwed. "vrak". Hinter allen diesen Varianten steckt die Bedeutung dt. "herumtreibender Gegenstand".

Als Wurzel aller genannten Familienmitglieder wird ide. "*uereg-", "*ureg-" = dt. "stoßen", "drängen", "treiben", "vertreiben", postuliert. Damit findet man auch den Weg zu lat. "urgere" = dt. "bedrängen", "drängen", "pressen", "stoßen", "treiben", "verdrängen", "verfolgen".

Fazit:



(E1)(L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/G2.html

Guerino Meschino [the Wretched]


(E1)(L1) https://www.bartleby.com/81/M1.html

Maleger [wretchedly thin]


(E?)(L?) http://www.bulwer-lytton.com/

The Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest Home Page

Where "WWW" means Wretched Writers Welcome.

Sponsored by the English Department at San Jose State University since 1982, the Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest is a whimsical literary competition that challenges entrants to compose the opening sentence to the worst of all possible novels.


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=wretch

wretch (n.) Old English "wrecca" = "wretch", "stranger", "exile", from Proto-Germanic "*wrakjon" "pursuer"; "one pursued" (cognates: Old Saxon "wrekkio", Old High German "reckeo" "a banished person", "exile", German "recke" "renowned warrior", "hero"), related to Old English "wreccan" = "to drive out", "punish" (see "wreak"). "The contrast in the development of the meaning in Eng. and German is remarkable" [OED]. Sense of "vile, despicable person" developed in Old English, reflecting the sorry state of the outcast, as presented in Anglo-Saxon verse (such as "The Wanderer"). Compare German "Elend" "misery", from Old High German "elilenti" "sojourn in a foreign land", "exile".


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=wretched

wretched (adj.) c. 1200, "wrecched", an irregular formation from "wrecche" "wretch" (see "wretch"). Also see "wicked". Related: "Wretchedly"; "wretchedness".


(E?)(L1) http://www.gutenberg.org/browse/authors/r

Rogers, Jasper W. : Facts for the Kind-Hearted of England! - As to the Wretchedness of the Irish Peasantry, and the Means for their Regeneration (English) (as Author)


(E?)(L?) https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Wretched

Origin of "wretched": Middle English, irregular from "wretch"; First Known Use: 12th century


(E?)(L?) http://www.nndb.com/people/173/000140750/

Frans Eemil Sillanpää
Born: 16-Sep-1888
Birthplace: Ylä-Satakunta, Hämeenkyrö, Finland
Died: 3-Jun-1964
Location of death: Helsinki, Finland
Cause of death: unspecified
Gender: Male
Race or Ethnicity: White
Sexual orientation: Straight
Occupation: Author
Nationality: Finland

Executive summary: The Loveliness and Wretchedness of Human Life

Frans Eemil Sillanpää was the first Finnish writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, taking the honor in 1939. He was born in Finland when it was part of Russia. His father was a farmer and peasant, and Sillanpää's work was frequently centered on peasant life. His best-known work, "Nuorena Nukkunut" (published in English as "The Maid Silja" or, alternately, "Fallen Asleep While Young") tells the story of a farm family's financial ruin, their peasant daughter's subsequent work as a chambermaid, her illicit affair with her employer, and her eventual death from tuberculosis. His novels have been adapted into movies several times, most notably the well-received 1988 Finnish film "Ihmiselon Ihanuus Ja Kurjuus" ("The Loveliness and Wretchedness of Human Life").


(E?)(L?) http://openliterature.net/?s=wretched

(Shakespeare): Search Results for wretched — 30 match(es)


(E?)(L?) http://www.opensourceshakespeare.org/concordance/

wretch (59) | wretch's (2) | wretched (80) | wretched'st (1) | wretchedness (10) | wretches (14)

Shakespeare concordance: all instances of "wretched"

wretched occurs 80 times in 77 speeches within 27 works.

Possibly related words: wretch, wretches, wretch's

Users have searched 275 times for wretched in Open Source Shakespeare.

The numbers below indicate the number of speeches in which wretched appears in each listed work. If a single speech contains wretched more than once, the speech will still be counted once as part of the total count.


(E?)(L?) http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/why-do-we-pronounce-the--ed-in-wicked?page=2

...
Another example of "-ed" turning an adjective into a longer adjective is "wretched". It comes from an Old English word that’s pronounced basically the same way as the noun "wretch" is today, except that the "w" wasn’t silent in Old English. As a noun in Old English, a "wretch" was an exile, or someone banished from their homeland. As an adjective "wretch", it meant what "wretched" means today, but only gained the superfluous suffix sometime around the year 1200.

An interesting side note is that one of the various spellings of "wretched" before it settled into its standard spelling was "R-A-T-C-H-I-T", a spelling that has been resurrected in present-day African American English as an insult. It’s also spelled "R-A-T-C-H-E-T".
...


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/wretch

wretch


(E2)(L1) http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/wretched

wretched


(E?)(L?) https://www.shakespeareswords.com/Glossary?let=w

wretchedness


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldmapper.org/atozindex.html


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldmapper.org/display.php?selected=179

Map 179 The Wretched Dollar (up to $1 a day)


(E?)(L?) https://www.yourdictionary.com/




(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=wretched
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "wretched" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1510 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#wretched

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2016-02

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