Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Nachrichten, Noticias, Informations, Notiziario, News

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B

BBC - etymology

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/search/results.pl?q=etymology&uri=%2Fh2g2%2F


BBC - all - etymology

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/search/results.pl?q=etymology&tab=allbbc&x=25&y=16


BBC - Etymologie

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/search/results.pl?q=etymologie&tab=www&go=homepage


BBC - News - Etymologie

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/cgi-bin/search/results.pl?meta=&go=homepage&q=etymologie&tab=news


BBC - h2g2 - etymology

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/Search?searchstring=etymology&searchtype=goosearch


bbc
Words in the News

In dem Bereich "Words in the News" erklärt die BBC jeweils einige englische Wörter, die in den aktuellen Nachrichten vorkommen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/index.shtml
Im Archiv kann man die Artikel seit 1999 nachlesen.

(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2008.shtml

News stories Business stories Arts and sports stories


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2007.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2006.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2005.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2004.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2003.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2002.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2001.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_2000.shtml


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/archive_1999.shtml


C

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F

fake (W3)

Unter dem auch ins Deutsche übernommenen engl. "fake" versteht man vor allem dt. "Fälschung". Zu Grunde liegt wohl die Bedeutung "reinigen", "schmücken" und eine geminsame Herkunft mit dt. "fegen". Im dt. "fegen" findet man also die Bedeutung "reinigen" wohingegen im engl. "fake" eher an die Bedeutung "ausschmücken" angeknüpft wir. Aber zu viel Schmuck führt zur "Fälschung". Also, jemand sollte die Fake-News einmal kräftig ausfegen.

(E?)(L?) https://aeon.co/essays/a-cult-of-fakery-has-taken-over-what-s-left-of-high-culture

The great swindle

From pickled sharks to compositions in silence, fake ideas and fake emotions have elbowed out truth and beauty


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2019-October/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2019-October/subject.html




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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2015-March/subject.html




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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2014-May/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2013-October/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2011-December/subject.html




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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2010-November/subject.html




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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2008-June/subject.html




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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2005-October/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2005-October/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2005-August/subject.html




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(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/museum-of-art-fakes

Museum of Art Fakes

Vienna, Austria

This Austrian museum celebrates the work of famous forgers and their inimitable imitations.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/barberville-yard-art-emporium

Barberville Yard Art Emporium

Pierson, Florida

This kitschy curio wonderland is full of fake animals, teak tables, and a cacophony of random bric-a-brac.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/les-specialistes-fake-door

'Les Spécialistes' Fake Door

Paris, France

This banal Parisian entranceway is not what it seems.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/museum-of-natural-history-mummies-universidad-autonoma-del-estado-de-mexic

Manuel M. Villada Museum of Natural History

Toluca, Mexico

The mummies of a fake priest and bandit's wife are among the abundant curiosities at this museum.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/jules-rimet-trophy-replica

Jules Rimet Trophy Replica

Manchester, England

The fake World Cup prize was secretly created after the first one was stolen in 1966.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/knights-of-pythias-cemetery

Knights of Pythias Cemetery

Black Hawk, Colorado

The burial grounds of a secret society includes fences topped with fake Tesla balls.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/tianjin-binhai-library

Tianjin Binhai Library

Tianjin, China

China’s breathtaking futuristic library is lined floor to ceiling with fake books.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/sample-kobo

Sample Kobo

Gujo-shi, Japan

Make your own fake treats at this factory and workshop in the epicenter of Japan's food replica industry.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/fake-dc-metro-station

Fake D.C. Metro Station

Perry, Georgia

Military and first responders can test their skills in a Foggy Bottom mock station down in Georgia.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/grey-owls-cabin

Grey Owl's Cabin

Waskesiu Lake, Saskatchewan

Where the English trapper who faked a First Nations identity bunked with beavers.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/the-hull-mermaid-hull-england

The Hull Mermaid

Hull Maritime Museum

Hull, England

This mummified mermaid corpse is an aquatic curio that was eventually revealed to be a fake.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/leinster-gardens-false-facades

Leinster Gardens False Facades

London, England

You'd never know the houses at 23-24 Leinster Gardens were fakes—until you see the train tracks on the other side.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/court-of-miracles

Cours des Miracles (Court of Miracles)

Paris, France

Beggars were miraculously "cured" of their fake ailments when they returned home to this 17th century Paris slum each night.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/flyways-waterfowl-museum

Flyways Waterfowl Museum

Baraboo, Wisconsin

At this Wisconsin museum there are real ducks, fake ducks, duck calls and a Duck Blind.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/the-leather-work-bangkok-thailand

The Leather Work

Bangkok, Thailand

A fake leather store in Bangkok is a shocking and gory demonstration of the cost of animal products.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/crystal-worlds

Crystal Worlds

Wattens, Austria

Swarovski's museum/theme park is a fake diamond fantasia overlooked by a giant.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/the-location-of-pauls-boutique-new-york-new-york

The Location of Paul's Boutique

Manhattan, New York

The iconic Manhattan corner that was once the site of the Beastie Boys' fake clothing store.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/villa-rose

Villa Rose

Gland, Switzerland

This secret Swiss fortress is disguised as a harmless pink house, complete with fake windows.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/demoulin-museum

DeMoulin Museum

Greenville, Illinois

Spanking machines, fake goats, and more devices of humiliation are on display in this museum of fraternal initiation devices.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/bodega

Bodega

Boston, Massachusetts

This upscale streetwear store is hidden behind a fake Snapple machine in the back of a deli.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/magellan-s-cross

Magellan's Cross

Cebu City, Philippines

This holy site either displays a centuries-old cross or a complete fake.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/medieval-village

Medieval Village

Turin, Italy

A fake medieval village in the middle of Turin.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/budapest-agriculture-museum

Budapest Agriculture Museum

Budapest, Hungary

A fake Transylvanian castle houses a cathedral of antlers.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/musee-de-la-contrefac

Musée de la Contrefaçon

Paris, France

An odd museum dedicated to French fakes.


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/how-a-fake-british-accent-took-old-hollywood-by-storm

How A Fake British Accent Took Old Hollywood By Storm

The story behind the strange way Katharine Hepburn (and others) spoke.

BY DAN NOSOWITZ OCTOBER 27, 2016


(E?)(L?) https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/digging-through-the-archives-of-scarfolk-the-internets-creepiest-fake-town

Digging Through the Archives of Scarfolk, the Internet’s Creepiest Fake Town

Haunted TV shows, surveillance owls, liver-based children’s toys—nothing is too weird for Scarfolk.

BY CARA GIAIMO OCTOBER 17, 2016

31 DAYS OF HALLOWEEN


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/newsenglish/witn/2008/05/080526_crystal_skulls.shtml

Learning English - Words in the News

26 May, 2008 - Published 11:00 GMT

Crystal skulls 'are modern fakes'
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.br.de/mediathek/podcast/artmix-galerie/fake-und-faelschung-mit-martin-doll-1/159408

ARTMIX.GALERIE

Fake und Fälschung - Mit Martin Doll

Medien- und Kulturwissenschaftler Martin Doll im Gespräch mit Annegret Arnold, BR 2013

37 Min. | 18.1.2013

VON: Hörspiel und Medienkunst

Ausstrahlung am 18.1.2013


(E?)(L?) https://www.br.de/mediathek/podcast/die-frage/wie-gefaehrlich-sind-fakes-im-netz/42118

DIE FRAGE

Wie gefährlich sind Fakes im Netz?

Fakes verbreiten sich im Netz wie sonst nur Katzenvideos. Richtig übel wird das, wenn Fakes gezielt eingesetzt werden, um zu hetzen. Zum Beispiel gegen Flüchtlinge. Wir haben uns auf die Spur eines Fakes in Traunstein gemacht.

57 Min. | 30.4.2016

VON: Michael Bartlewski, Tobias Henkenhaf

Ausstrahlung am 30.4.2016


(E?)(L?) https://www.definitions.net/definitions/F/10




(E?)(L?) http://fakeisthenewreal.org/

NEIL FREEMAN / FAKE IS THE NEW REAL

Neil Freeman is an artist and urban planner. He lives and works in New York City. Fake is the new real is a collection of his work, ongoing since 2000.

maps

census grids density website random united states every local government subways at scale circled states street chains street grids electoral college reform uk centered 19 trillion maps streets centered september weather street gradients connected places skyscrapers in order schools in order traces of new york last train to clarksville nuclear capable nations

bots

every tract combined sewer overflows mapmaker every lot buoy photography lost calendars infinite calendar arbitrary names longest word obligatory airport retweets industrial tides strange allure

cities

when i say city 50 states and 50 metros sports arenas by density chicago milexmile

photos

gowanus samples charles river almanac very low quality jpgs

schema

crossword puzzle contextual calendar flight postcard america's first great comparative timeline symbolic alphabet national holidays

visual data

us presidential election map brexit nyc housing prices eligible voters

walks

solar alignment walk centroids and asphalt


(E?)(L?) https://h2g2.com/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A773723

How to Fake an English Accent in a Chatroom


(E?)(L?) https://daily.jstor.org/the-incredibly-true-story-of-fake-headlines/

LINGUA OBSCURA

The Incredibly True Story of Fake Headlines

Are you still reading? Editors frequently use this space to include important contextual information about a news story.
...


(E?)(L?) http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~bwhitman/10000.html

Ten Thousand Statistically Grammar-Average Fake Band Names


(E?)(L?) http://ozandends.blogspot.com/2008_06_01_archive.html

...
Incorporating Indian characters or traditions helps to establish a fantasy as American rather than stuck within those dominant British and other European traditions; Chabon has spoken explicitly about that goal in writing Summerland, which also includes the heroes of traditional American "folklore" (and "fakelore"), as well as a whole lot more.
...


(E?)(L?) https://public.oed.com/updates/new-words-list-june-2006/

15 June 2006 also saw the publication of the following new entries from across the alphabet:
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"fakelore", n.
...

"fakelore", n.: Specious folklore, esp. stories with stereotypically folkloric elements falsely presented as genuine folklore.

Etymology: Alteration of "folklore" n. after "fake" n.


(E?)(L?) http://www.philocrites.com/archives/003804.html

...
Philocrites: November 21, 2007

If the difference between "folklore" and "fakelore" is that someone has to be self-consciously deliberate about inventing a past, the difference may only exist in a meaningful way for a short period of time until others start experiencing the "fakelore" as "folklore".
...


(E?)(L?) https://quoteinvestigator.com/2011/12/05/fake-honesty/

The Main Thing Is Honesty. If You Can Fake That, You’ve Got It Made
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.tripsavvy.com/worlds-most-famous-fake-landmarks-4120860

The World's Most Famous Fake Landmarks


(E?)(L?) https://nancyfriedman.typepad.com/away_with_words/2016/11/word-of-the-week-fake.html

November 21, 2016

Word of the week: Fake

In a week that saw post-truth anointed word of the year by Oxford Dictionaries, the media – mainstream and social – were full of news about fake news. Facebook was put on the defensive for allowing “misinformation” about the U.S. presidential election to spread throughout its social network.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.waywordradio.org/?s=Fake




(E?)(L?) https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fake_copy_listings.html

fake copy listings


(E?)(L?) https://www.wordnik.com/words/fakement

"fakement", noun:

Any act of deceit, fraud, swindling, or thieving; the act of begging under false pretenses; also, a device by which fraud is effected.

noun Any peculiar or artistic production or piece of workmanship.


(E?)(L?) http://www.worldwidewords.org/weirdwords/ww-poo1.htm

"Poodle-faker"

It’s long-outmoded British army slang. A "poodle-faker" was a young officer who was disparagingly considered by fellow officers to be over-attentive to women. To suggest he was a gigolo, as some have done, would be to go much too far; he hardly even aspired to the status of ladies’ man.
...


(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=fake
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "fake" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1530 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


Erstellt: 2020-07

fake news (W3)

Einem Hinweis bei "www.dictionary.com/browse/fake-news" zu Folge, tritt die Bezeichnung engl. "fake news" um 1800-1820 erstmals schriftlich in Erscheinung. Die damalige Bedeutung engl. "false news", "spurious news" wurde spätestens in den Jahren 2010 – 2015 zu dt. "gezielt verbreiteten Falschmeldungen" uminterpretiert.

(E?)(L?) https://www.1jour1actu.com/education-aux-medias/les-personnes-qui-font-des-fake-news-le-font-pour-largent-car-elles-veulent-faire-le-buzz-11182

Les personnes qui font des "fake news" le font pour l'argent car elles veulent faire le buzz…
...
Mais, un fake news, qu'est-ce que c'est ? ...


(E?)(L?) https://www.1jour1actu.com/monde/safer-internet-day-les-bons-reflexes-face-aux-fake-news-65124

Safer Internet Day : les bons réflexes face aux "fake news"!
...


(E?)(L?) https://aeon.co/essays/a-radio-play-about-radio-that-became-the-first-fake-news-story

What War of the Worlds did

The uncanny realism of Orson Welles’s radio play crystallised a fear of communication technology that haunts us today
...
The panic didn’t end that night. The broadcast has become an origin story of fake news and technological anxiety in the United States, and its tentacled aliens watch when we talk of fake news today.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.americandialect.org/fake-news-is-2017-american-dialect-society-word-of-the-year

“Fake news” is 2017 American Dialect Society word of the year

January 5th, 2018
...


(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2019-December/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2018-January/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2017-November/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2017-June/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2017-June/subject.html




(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2016-December/subject.html




(E?)(L?) https://www.barrypopik.com/index.php/azindex/?letter=F




(E?)(L?) http://www.culture.fr/franceterme/terme/CULT754?from=list&francetermeSearchTerme=fake+news&francetermeSearchDomaine=0

"infox", n.f.Journal officiel du 23/05/2020

Synonyme : information fallacieuse

Domaine : COMMUNICATION

Définition : Information mensongère ou délibérément biaisée.

Note : Une "infox" peut servir, par exemple, à favoriser un parti politique au détriment d’un autre, à entacher la réputation d’une personnalité ou d’une entreprise, ou à contredire une vérité scientifique.

Voir aussi : "infox vidéo", Recommandation sur les équivalents français à donner à l'expression "fake news"

Équivalent étranger : "fake news" (en)


(E?)(L?) https://www.dailywritingtips.com/political-terms-dominate-new-dictionary-entries/

...
The phrase "fake news" has its own new entry, describing the term as pertaining to sensationalized false journalistic content that serves to boost ad revenue and/or discredit an entity that is the subject of the content. An entry surprising for its late appearance is "false flag", which has long referred to the use by marine vessels of a flag of a country the ship doesn’t represent in order to deceive personnel on an enemy vessel.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.definitions.net/definition/fake+news

...
"Fake news" is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically, often using sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership, online sharing, and Internet click revenue.
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.dictionary.com/browse/fake-news?s=t

...
ORIGIN OF "FAKE NEWS"

First recorded in 1800–20 in the sense “false news, spurious news”; the current sense was first recorded in 2010–15
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.drmardy.com/dmdmq/a?s[]=fake&s[]=news

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Accuracy is to a newspaper what virtue is to a woman.

Joseph Pulitzer, quoted in Alleyne Ireland, “Joseph Pulitzer: Reminiscences of a Secretary,” in Metropolitan magazine (Dec., 1913)

QUOTE NOTE:

This is how the quotation is typically presented, but it was originally the concluding portion of remarks Pulitzer made to Mr. Ireland, his personal secretary.

“It is not enough to refrain from printing "fake news",”

he said, adding that it was also insufficient to be simply on guard for mistakes and carelessness in reporting. Rather, he concluded:

“You have got to do much more than that; you have got to make every one connected to the paper—your editors, your reporters, your correspondents, your re-write men, your proof-readers—believe that accuracy is to a newspaper what virtue is to a woman.”

Pulitzer’s observation, which went on to become one of his best-known quotations, was also tweaked in a memorable way by Adlai Stevenson:

“Accuracy is to a newspaper what virtue is to a lady, but a newspaper can always print a retraction.”
...


(E?)(L?) https://www.grammarphobia.com/blog/2019/07

The "true truth"

July 29, 2019

Q: After recent unrest in Memphis, the city’s police director said he suspected that there were “some individuals who try to agitate a situation, and it’s unfortunate because it hinders the "true truth" coming out.” Is "true truth" a new concept in the era of "fake news"?

A: No, "true truth" is not a product of our times. It dates back to Renaissance England and is one in a long line of phrases implying that sometimes the truth is relative.

Other phrases include "plain truth", "naked truth", "whole truth", "absolute truth", "unadorned truth", "unvarnished truth", and "cold truth". Nobody is much bothered by these expressions.

But "true truth" seems to cross a line, since the noun phrase is virtually self-modifying. After all, the truth by definition is true.

Redundant or not, the phrase "true truth" has been around since the 16th century, if not earlier. This is the oldest example we’ve found, from a poem believed to have been published around 1555:

“Nor stay is there none as the "true truth" sayth” (from The Tryumphe of Tyme, a translation by Henry Parker, Lord Morley, from Petrarch’s Italian).

We also found this example in a poem published in 1602: “With that "true truth", his arrand [message] I had sed [spoken]” (from Three Pastoral Elegies of Anander, Anetor, and Muridella, by William Basse).

This 1611 use is a better illustration of the phrase’s meaning: Among the “gifts that gracious Heav’ns bestowe,” the poet says, is the ability “to discern "true Truth" from Sophistrie” (from Josuah Sylvester’s translation of a work by Guillaume de Salluste du Bartas).

We’ve also found the expression in religious tracts and philosophical treatises — not only in English but in French ("la vraie vérité") and German ("die wahre Wahrheit").

The German philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte, writing around 1800, criticizes those who say to themselves, “we who speak have undoubtedly the "true truth" inborn in us, and, hence, the man who contradicts us must necessarily be in the wrong.” (From A. E. Kroeger’s English translation of “Fichte’s Criticism of Schelling,” Journal of Speculative Philosophy, July 1878.)

"True truth" also crops up in journalism and in fiction. In “White Lies,” an anonymous opinion piece that ran in the weekly journal Truth (London, Sept. 1, 1881), the phrase appears 11 times.

Here are a few examples:
...
Getting back to some of those other “truth” phrases we mentioned above, a couple date back to the 15th century.

The Oxford English Dictionary has the earliest known written uses of "plain truth" (circa 1425) and "naked truth" (1436). And in searches of historical databases, we’ve found early examples of "whole truth" (1549); "absolute truth" (1567); "unadorned truth" (1782); "unvarnished truth" (1820); and "cold truth" (1836).

Perhaps the most famous of such phrases is one from the 16th century: "the truth, the "whole truth", and nothing but the truth.”

The OED defines this expression and its variants as meaning "the absolute truth". Specifically, the dictionary adds, it’s “used to emphasize that something, esp. a statement, is or should be true in every particular, with no facts omitted or untrue elements added.”
...
This later 16th-century example refers to the oath taken by a jury foreman: “You shal present and tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so helpe you God, and by the contents of this booke.” (From The Order of Keeping a Court Leete, 1593, by Jonas Adams. The “court leet,” which had jurisdiction over petty offenses and civil disputes, dated from medieval times and was held periodically in a local manor or district before a lord or his steward.)
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The oath has come down through the centuries largely intact. This OED example is from Martin F. Scheinman’s 1977 book Evidence and Proof in Arbitration (the brackets are in the original): “The oath generally used is: ‘Do you swear [or affirm] to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth?’ ”


(E?)(L?) https://www.herodote.net/_Fake_news_contre_mensonges_d_Etat-synthese-2369-506.php

« Fake news » contre mensonges d'État

Un nouveau terme est entré dans le langage médiatique: "fake news". C’est une façon « branchée » de désigner les bobards, contre-vérités et rumeurs qui circulent sur les réseaux sociaux : facebook, youtube etc. Faut-il s’en plaindre ?

Internet n’a pas inventé les mensonges et force est de constater que les mensonges les plus dangereux ne sont pas ceux qui circulent anonymement sur les réseaux sociaux mais ceux qui sont proférés de façon très officielle par les gouvernements avec le concours des médias institutionnels. La preuve par l'Histoire...
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(E?)(L?) http://hoaxes.org/weblog/comments/art_fake_news

The Art of "Fake News"


(E?)(L?) https://languagemonitor.com/

fake news [# 42]


(E?)(L?) https://www.liveabout.com/hilarious-fake-news-sites-1924234

The Most Hilarious Fake News Sites

Don't Believe Everything You Read


(E?)(L?) http://www.macmillandictionaryblog.com/open-dictionary-word-of-the-month-fake-news

Open Dictionary Word of the Month: "fake news"
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Political events here and across the pond continue to be a rich source of new entries. So we have "alternative fact", "Brextremist", "Calexit" (the possibility of California detaching itself from the United States), "EO" ("executive order"), "kompromat", and "sanctuary city", among others. This is a stream that shows no signs of drying up. Business is another rich source of neologisms: this batch includes "sharewashing", which joins other terms like "straightwashing" and "leanwashing" (and makes "-washing" a strong candidate for a new suffix entry); "communications director"; "entity governance"; "forensic accounting"; and "sunset", used as a verb meaning "to retire" or "phase out".
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Our users sometimes spot gaps in our coverage of derived words: the current crop includes "avidity", "concealment", "disinfection", "mundanity" and "comeliness", all of which richly deserve a place in the dictionary.

There could only be one Open Dictionary word of the month for December and January and it is "fake news". This term came to prominence during the US presidential election, when it became apparent that completely fabricated news stories, particularly on social media, were being accepted as true by many who read them. The entry was submitted in early January by regular contributor Boris Marchenko, who defined it as “a sensational piece of news which does not map to reality“. In the few weeks since it was added to the Open Dictionary, there has been an explosion in the frequency with which the term is used. And in a striking illustration of the pace at which language is changing and acquiring new meanings, "fake news" has now been turned back on itself and is being used by the White House and others to dismiss any news story in the mainstream media regarded as unfavourable or biased. I suspect this is one neologism that is going to stick around for a long time.
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(E?)(L?) https://www.nieuwsblad.be/cnt/dmf20171102_03165251

Het lijkt wel een van zijn favoriete woorden, "fake news". Donald Trump gebruikt het sinds de presidentscampagne van 2016 bijna wekelijks. De term is intussen zo ingeburgerd dat het in de Angelsaksische wereld het woord van het jaar is.
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(E?)(L?) https://www.nndb.com/people/679/000115334/

Janet Cooke

AKA Janet Leslie Cooke

Born: 23-Jul-1954

Gender: Female

Race or Ethnicity: Black

Sexual orientation: Straight

Occupation: Journalist, Hoaxer

Nationality: United States

Executive summary: Caught writing "fake news"
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(E?)(L?) https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2017/02/13/the-true-history-of-fake-news/

The True History of Fake News

Robert Darnton

L.M. Slackens: The Yellow Press, showing William Randolph Hearst as a jester handing out newspapers, published by Keppler & Schwarzmann, October 12, 1910

Library of Congress

In the long history of misinformation, the current outbreak of "fake news" has already secured a special place, with the president’s personal adviser, Kellyanne Conway, going so far as to invent a Kentucky massacre in order to defend a ban on travelers from seven Muslim countries. But the concoction of alternative facts is hardly rare, and the equivalent of today’s poisonous, bite-size texts and tweets can be found in most periods of history, going back to the ancients.
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The production of fake, semi-false, and true but compromising snippets of news reached a peak in eighteenth-century London, when newspapers began to circulate among a broad public. In 1788, London had ten dailies, eight tri-weeklies, and nine weekly newspapers, and their stories usually consisted of only a paragraph. “Paragraph men” picked up gossip in coffee houses, scribbled a few sentences on a scrap of paper, and turned in the text to printer-publishers, who often set it in the next available space of a column of type on a composing stone. Some paragraph men received payment; some contented themselves with manipulating public opinion for or against a public figure, a play, or a book.
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(E?)(L?) https://blog.oup.com/2017/08/fake-fagin-etymology/

A fake etymology of the word “fake,” with deep thoughts on “Fagin” and other names in Dickens
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I once dealt with the etymology of our F-word. All over the Germanic-speaking world, we find "fik–" ~ "fak-" ~ "fuk-" verbs meaning "to move back and forth" and "cheat". I concluded that the English verb was a borrowing from Low German. "Fake" and "feague" are also possible loans (borrowed words, it will be observed, are always on permanent loan) from the same area. They probably meant "go ahead", "move"; "act", "do", with all kinds of specialization, from "darn (a stocking)", to "cheat", to "copulate". Once they were appropriated by thieves, "go ahead", "do", naturally, became "deceive"; "steal", etc. Since they sounded alike, they might, even must have influenced one another. I will risk suggesting that "fake" is part of the f-k family. Naturally, in Cockney, it was and is pronounced as "fike". Those who adopted the verb knew the rules of the Cockney vowel shift, and, just as we today, when instructed “to chinge trines at foiv o’clock at the nearest stition,” understand our London interlocutor, knew perfectly well that "fike" meant "fake" and recorded it accordingly.
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(E?)(L?) https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/12/fake-news-history-long-violent-214535

The Long and Brutal History of Fake News

Bogus news has been around a lot longer than real news. And it’s left a lot of destruction behind.

By JACOB SOLL December 18, 2016

The fake news hit Trent, Italy, on Easter Sunday, 1475.
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But amid all the media handwringing about "fake news" and how to deal with it, one fact seems to have gotten lost: "Fake news" is not a new phenomenon. It has been around since news became a concept 500 years ago with the invention of print — a lot longer, in fact, than verified, “objective” news, which emerged in force a little more than a century ago. From the start, "fake news" has tended to be sensationalist and extreme, designed to inflame passions and prejudices. And it has often provoked violence. The Nazi propaganda machine relied on the same sorts of fake stories about ritual Jewish drinking of childrens’ blood that inspired Prince-Bishop Hinderbach in the 15th century. Perhaps most dangerous is how terrifyingly persistent and powerful "fake news" has proved to be. As Pope Sixtus IV found out, wild fake stories with roots in popular prejudice often prove too much for responsible authorities to handle. With the decline of trusted news establishments around the country, who’s to stop them today?
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(E?)(L?) https://www.prleap.com/pr/93037/new-book-the-daily-showand-philosophy-moments

NEW BOOK “THE DAILY SHOWAND PHILOSOPHY MOMENTS OF ZEN IN THE ART OF FAKE NEWS"

September 10, 2007 (PRLEAP.COM) Entertainment News


(E?)(L?) https://www.snopes.com/news/2016/01/14/fake-news-sites/

Snopes’ Field Guide to "Fake News" Sites and Hoax Purveyors

Snopes.com's updated guide to the internet's clickbaiting, news-faking, social media exploiting dark side.

KIM LACAPRIA

PUBLISHED 14 JANUARY 2016


(E?)(L?) https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/nov/02/fake-news-is-very-real-word-of-the-year-for-2017

Fake news is 'very real' word of the year for 2017


(E?)(L?) https://nancyfriedman.typepad.com/away_with_words/2014/09/lets-pumpkin.html

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Eleven years of Starbucks success has inspired a lot of imitators. From the Fortune article:

Just about anything that can have a pumpkin variety now does, or soon will: Oreos, Milano cookies, M&Ms, yogurt, marshmallows, gum, oatmeal, Eggo waffles. There was even buzz last week, which turned out to be a hoax, about a pumpkin spice condom. The fact that this "fake news" gained so much traction is a sign of how sexy the subject has become.
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(E?)(L?) https://nancyfriedman.typepad.com/away_with_words/2017/12/words-of-the-year-2017-fritinancy-edition.html

December 15, 2017

Words of the year 2017: Fritinancy edition

With December half gone, we’re already deep into Word of the Year season. Dictionary.com has chosen "complicit"; Merriam-Webster chose "feminism"; Collins Dictionary offered "fake news". Oxford University Press selected "Trump" as its Children’s Word of the Year for 2017, while Oxford Dictionaries picked "youthquake", which last was popular in the 1960s, although for different reasons. (The word was coined in 1965 by Vogue editor Diana Vreeland.) Cambridge Dictionary picked "populism". On NPR’s "Fresh Air", Geoff Nunberg made the case for "tribal" (although on Twitter, he made another suggestion); on Twitter, John Kelly nominated "bot", and on the Oxford Dictionaries blog he rounded up an assortment of WOTYs, including, from Switzerland, "harcèlement", or "harassment". And the pseudonymous Emmet Lee Dickinson has been counting down December with a daily WOTY.
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(E?)(L?) https://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/dictionary/fake-news-is-the-real-word-of-the-year/

BEHIND THE DICTIONARY - LEXICOGRAPHERS TALK ABOUT LANGUAGE

"Fake News" Is the Real Word of the Year

January 7, 2018

By Nancy Friedman

In a landslide vote, the American Dialect Society on Friday selected "fake news" as its word of the year for 2017 – the term, in its members' view, that best represents "the public discourse and preoccupations of the past year."
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(E?)(L?) https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/fake-news.html

"Fake news", or "hoax news", refers to "false information" or "propaganda" published under the guise of being authentic news. "Fake news" websites and channels push their fake news content in an attempt to mislead consumers of the content and spread misinformation via social networks and word-of-mouth.

One of the more colorful definitions of "fake news" comes from PolitiFact: "Fake news is made-up stuff, masterfully manipulated to look like credible journalistic reports that are easily spread online to large audiences willing to believe the fictions and spread the word."
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(E?)(L?) https://www.wordorigins.org/harmless-drudge/ads-word-of-the-year-fake-news?rq=fake%20news

ADS Word of the Year: "fake news"

7 January 2018


(E?)(L?) https://www.wordorigins.org/harmless-drudge/2016-wordoriginsorg-words-of-the-year-woty?rq=fake%20news

2016 Wordorigins.org Words of the Year (WOTY)

22 December 2016
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November: "fake news". In what may be the year’s biggest case of closing the barn door after the horse has escaped, following the election the mainstream media suddenly discovered the existence of "fake news" sites and started to gauge the impact they had on the presidential race. Melissa Zimdars, a communications professor at Merrimack College in Massachusetts had prepared a list of questionable news sources for her students which went viral in November, giving media outlets the opportunity to run a flurry of stories about the topic before the next shiny object caught their attention. Facebook, Twitter and other social media platforms dutifully pledged to tweak their algorithms to make it harder for "fake news" stories to gain traction, but since their revenue models rely on such clickbait, it’s hard to believe that anything substantive will be done about the problem.
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(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=fake news
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "fake news" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1800 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


Erstellt: 2020-07

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(E?)(L?) http://www.corsinet.com/trivia/j-triv.html
Auf dieser Seite findet man den Hinweis, dass engl. "news" keine Ableitung von "new" ist sondern ain Acronym zu "North, East, West, South".


The word "news" did not come about because it was the plural of "new". It came from the first letters of the words North, East, West and South. This was because information was being gathered from all different directions.


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yaelf
English Usage in the News

(E?)(L?) http://www.yaelf.com/news/




Erstellt: 2010-09

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