AltGr (W3)"AltGr" auf der Computertastatur steht für "alternative graphic".
Der Begriff "Cloud Computing" wird laut Wikipedia Herrn Prof. Ramnath K. Chellappa zugeordnet. Mittlerweile gibt es einige Definitionsversuche für den Begriff:
Based on how the internet has been depicted in computer network diagrams and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals, the term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet. This term was first academically used by Professor Ramnath K. Chellappa. He defined the term cloud as a computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined rationale rather than technical limits.
The first known academic usage and definition of the term "Cloud Computing" appears to be provided by Prof. Chellappa in a talk titled "Intermediaries in Cloud-Computing", presented at the INFORMS meeting in Dallas in 1997.
Chellappa, R.K., Intermediaries in Cloud-Computing: A New Computing Paradigm, INFORMS Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, October 26-29, 1997.
He suggested that this would be a new "computing paradigm where the boundaries of computing will be determined by economic rationale rather than technical limits alone."
A follow-up research in 2002 refers to this definition and proposes pricing models specifically for active intranets.
Chellappa, R.K., and Gupta, A., Managing Computing Resources in Active Intranets, International Journal of Network Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp.117-128, March/April 2002.
The first scholarly use of the term "cloud computing" was in a 1997 lecture by Ramnath Chellappa.
What cloud computing really means
The next big trend sounds nebulous, but it's not so fuzzy when you view the value proposition from the perspective of IT professionals
The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network, and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents.
The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government, and community forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.
The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies, who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering "Virtual Private Network" ("VPN") services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit, they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.
After the dot-com bubble, Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers, which, like most computer networks, were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time, just to leave room for occasional spikes. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small, fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily, Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers, and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006.
Zweifelsfrei ist Drag & Drop eine praktische Angelegenheit und spart bei richtiger Anwendung eine Menge Zeit. Vielleicht hilft Ihnen einer der folgenden Drag&Drop-Tipps, Ihre Arbeit am PC zu vereinfachen:
Der vorgeschlagene Name "Itanic" setzt sich also aus "Itanium" und "Titanic" zusammen.
Intel recently christened "the chip formerly known as Merced" with the newly coined name "ITANIUM". (Yes, they really do want it in all caps. Tough.)
Remembering the blockbuster movie, I wonder if Itanic might not be better. After all, if ever a processor was over-designed, oversold, and had the potential to doom a chip manufacturer, "Itanium" is it.
All About Adobe PDF
What is "PDF"? Short for "Portable Document Format", PDF is a file format developed by Adobe Systems. PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications making it possible to send documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor (or printer) as they were intended to be viewed.
For example, using a search engine that supports proximity operators, querying the phrase “cable NEAR modem” will instruct the search engine to look in documents for instances of the words “cable” and “modem” that are near each other. Different search engines will specify different distances that the words must be within.
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- El Reg is looking for a new London sub-editor
- The Register is looking for a new sub-editor to work in our London newsroom. The Register is the world's first technology tabloid and has been published exclusively online since before that was technically even possible. Our latest ABCe audit confirmed more than 9 million monthly unique browsers worldwide, including just about ….
- Lewis Page, 03 Jul 2014
- Heroku tech change leaves customer with bill-shock
- The cloud is not as easy or as simple as its providers' marketing departments may want you to believe - that's the moral of the story of a startup and its platform provider Heroku. Web-startup Rap Genius, which pays Heroku $20,000 a month in fees, alleged in a forceful blog post published on Tuesday that the Salesforce-owned ….
- Jack Clark, 15 Feb 2013
- Omnishambles beats off mummy-porn, becomes English word of 2012
- The UK's new word of 2012 is "omnishambles", according to the Oxford English Dictionary's compilers. Selected from a list of several new words added to the gold-standard dictionary this year, omnishambles was chosen by lexicographers at Oxford University Press because it best reflects the mood of the past 12 months. It was first ….
- Anna Leach, 13 Nov 2012
- David Blaine tw*tdangles into Urban Dictionary
- David Blaine has secured his place in lexicographical history by twatdangling his way into the Urban Dictionary. As regular readers will recall, we previously believed the term was coined by a Reg commenter outraged by the gitwizard's's NYC Benito Mussolini impression. However, the word's full etymology has now been revealed: ….
- Lester Haines, 06 Mar 2009
- El Reg decimates English language
- It's official: the English language is going to hell in a handcart and if drastic measures are not taken to halt the destruction of our beloved mother tongue then all of the efforts of Nelsonian Jack tars and Spitfire-borne officer pilots to defend this Scepter'd Isle against the forces of barbarism will have been in vain. That ….
- Lester Haines, 04 Mar 2008
- Bruce Willis ousts Deep Purple for Eurovision title
- It's always good to know you take us seriously, and this reader's practical application of the recent ban on the word solution made all hacks at Vulture Central sit back and sigh with a collective 'Aw, bless'. I have followed your proposed banning of the word "solution" with some amusement recently... Although amusing, I hadn't ….
- Tracey Cooper, 02 Mar 2007
- Suicide squirrel in opera-hating kamikaze bike spoke mangle
- A Helsinki squirrel dived into the bicycle wheel of passing opera singer Esa Ruuttunen, hospitalising him and killing itself. The squirrel - apparently not an opera fan - ran headlong at Ruuttunen's spokes. Alarmed, the bicycling bass baritone hit the deck. Instead of attending rehearsals for new Finnish opus Kaarmeen hetki ( ….
- Christopher Williams, 05 Sep 2006
- Netscape versus Digg
- Newly relaunched Netscape.com has been getting into a bit of a slanging match with Digg - the site which gets its users to rate news stories. The new Netscape does something very similar but pays its would-be-editors up to $1,000 a month for their recommendations. Kevin Rose, from Digg, and Jason Calacanis, from Netscape, have ….
- John Oates, 26 Jul 2006
- Proles warm to 'groupthink'
- Morgan Stanley was recently awarded the domain mymorganstanleyplatinum.com - wrested without pity from it previous owner Baroness Penelope Cat of Nash DCB. Here' some more background from the horse's mouth, Mike Woods, who acted for said feline: Hi I liked your article but cats never slink off, the reason Penny lost was ….
- Lester Haines, 06 Jun 2006
- Catch as catch can
- Exception handling is a comparative newcomer to the programmer’s toolset. The mighty for loop, the enigmatic if statement and the cheeky little counter increment have been with us since the first automatic languages bubbled to the surface of the primordial programming bog at Manchester, more than half a century ago. But, ….
- Verity Stob, 11 Jan 2006
- Windows XP SP2 slips into Fall
- As we warned you in April, Microsoft has again delayed Windows XP Service Pack 2, the most significant revision of the Windows code base since its launch in 2001. The work now being scheduled for completion and an RTM (release to manufacturing [alternative etymology]) in August means a Fall ship date. Microsoft will be relieved ….
- Andrew Orlowski, 12 Jul 2004
- Microsoft sues over South American drug allegations
- Microsoft's Brazilian subsidiary has taken the country's leading open source advocate to court over what it calls defamatory remarks. Sergio Amadeu, president of the National Institute of Information Technology (ITI), a software libre consultancy, compared Microsoft's Windows license discounts for the public sector to running a ….
- Andrew Orlowski, 22 Jun 2004
- Lady Di inquest scrambles black helicopter brigade
- Conspiracy theorists are likely to have a field day over the inquests into the deaths of Lady Di and Dodi Al Fayed, which opened today in London. Amid a veritable newsfest of tabloid speculation and TV punditry, former royal butler Paul Burrell will be ordered to hand over a letter written by Di in which she sensationally ….
- Lester Haines, 06 Jan 2004
- Microsoft faces phone annihilation
- Poland's cultural ambassador to the Internet, "jpzr" is a gift who keeps on giving. Ever since Windows CE appeared in 1996, analysts have been predicting, and scribes have dutifully been transcribing, the inevitable encroachment of Microsoft into the phone business. Reporting that at times, has owed more to Marxist theleogy ….
- Andrew Orlowski, 18 Mar 2003
- Why Microsoft makes a complete hash out of C#
- The # key on US keyboards is a minor irritation for the British - it's where '£', our pound sign, should be. Furthermore, Americans mispronounce the # sign as pound, when everyone else knows it should be 'hash' (Alright everyone except BT, whose operators insist on calling it the 'square' key on the phone). According to this ….
- Drew Cullen, 04 Jul 2002
- Reg shunned from Itanic2 briefings
- Intel is having a marathon briefing session for Silicon Valley journalists on Friday, but curiously, the Register hasn't been invited to the seven-hour reading of The Itanic Verses. It's the first time we can ever remember being uninvited by the guys at Satan Clara. We hope it's a temporary faux pas. Even the Department of ….
- Andrew Orlowski, 13 Jun 2002
- Criminal BillG? Etymology of 'Itanic'… and Columbine's back
- Another hiatus in the Letters page. I hit the road to see the dusty glories of Arizona for a few days in early March, and on the way back stopped off at what I'm now convinced is America's Greatest Work of Art. Since late last year, you can walk right through it, and if you're in need of spiritual uplift, I can't recommend it ….
- Andrew Orlowski, 24 Apr 2002
- US discovers dictionary
- May the false declaration be with you We've upset some of our American readers with our explanation of the word 'faggot', i.e., a bundle of sticks commonly used for burning witches. No explanation required, according to Dave: Dammit, as a God-fearing American I resent the implication that I'm so ignorant I'll never know the ….
- Lester Haines, 21 Apr 2001
- French language discovers email
- It's official-'email' is now a legitimate word in French, following its inclusion in the latest edition of the Robert dictionary, France's equivalent to the language-defining Oxford English Dictionary. 'Surfer' too is now acceptable to French speakers describing Web users. Well known for their disapproval of the inclusion of ….
- Tony Smith, 03 Sep 1998
In 1950, Turing introduced the "Turing Test" to prove his theory that computers eventually would be constructed that would be capable of human thought. His papers on the subject provide a foundation for modern research in "artificial intelligence".
Nitwit! Oddment! Blubber! Tweak! - Dumbledore's "speech" from PS
- Nitwit - slang for "a very stupid person"
- Oddment - something left over
- Blubber - (def. 1) excessive body fat, especially in marine animals. (def. 2) to cry noisily
- Tweak - to adjust slightly
Upgrades erweitern die Software deutlich um Funktionalität und werden daher auch als neue Version bezeichnet. Der Wechsel von Windows Vista auf Windows7 ist beispielsweise ein Upgrade. Sie erscheinen deutlich seltener als Updates - hier können mehrere Monate bis hin zu Jahren zwischen einzelnen Versionen vergehen. Für das Einspielen eines Upgrades ist häufig der Erwerb einer neuen Lizenz notwendig.
This is a list of the origins of computer-related terms or terms used in the computing world (i.e., a list of computer term etymologies). It relates to both computer hardware and computer software.
Names of many computer terms, especially computer applications, often relate to the function they perform, e.g., a compiler is an application that compiles (programming language source code into the computer's machine language). There are other terms however whose history would indicate that it had less to do with the functionality, and hence are of etymological value. This article lists such terms.
- ABEND — short for abnormal end, and refers to a program stopping prematurely due to a bug, from an IBM System/360 error message. Abend is the German word for evening, and some say ABEND is so-named because it's "what system operators do to the machine late on Friday when they want to call it a day."
- Ada — a programming language named after Ada Lovelace, who is considered by many to be the first programmer.
- Apache — the web server from the Apache Software Foundation.
- Originally this name was chosen by an author just because it was a catchy name. Soon enough, it was suggested that the name was indeed appropriate, because its founders got started by applying patches to code written for NCSA's httpd daemon. The result was "a patchy" server. AWK — a computer pattern/action language, name made up of the surnames of its authors Alfred V. Aho, Peter J. Weinberger, and Brian W. Kernighan
- B — a programming language created by Ken Thompson as a revision of the BCPL programming language.
- biff — a command to turn on asynchronous email notification on Unix systems. Actually named after a dog at U.C. Berkeley, who would bark when mail was delivered. (The dog belonged to Heidi Stettner, validation of this from Eric Cooper.)
- bit — Claude E. Shannon first used the word bit in a 1948 paper. Shannon's bit is a portmanteau word for binary digit (or possibly binary digit). He attributed its origin to John W. Tukey. See Piece of eight.
- Bon — a programming language created by Ken Thompson and named after his wife Bonnie. However according to an encyclopedia quotation in Bon's manual, it was named after a religion (likely Tibetan) whose rituals involve the murmuring of magic formulas.
- booting or bootstrapping — The term booting or bootstrapping a computer was inspired by the story of the Baron Münchhausen where he pulls himself out of a swamp by the straps on his boots.
- bug — a fault in a computer program which prevents it from working correctly.
- The term is often (but erroneously) credited to Grace Hopper. In 1946, she joined the Harvard Faculty at the Computation Laboratory where she traced an error in the Harvard Mark II to a moth trapped in a relay. This bug was carefully removed and taped to the log book. (See picture). However, use of the word "bug" to describe defects in mechanical systems dates back to at least the 1870s, perhaps especially in Scotland. Thomas Edison, for one, used the term in his notebooks. byte — the term was coined by Werner Buchholz in 1956 during the early design phase for the IBM Stretch computer. It was coined by mutating the word bite so it would not be accidentally misspelled as bit. A byte usually is a grouping of 8 bits, but technically refers to the smallest addressable unit of memory.
- C — a programming language named because Dennis Ritchie improved on the B language and called it New B. He later called it C. (See also D).
- C++ — an object-oriented programming language and a successor to the C programming language.
- C++ creator Bjarne Stroustrup called his new language "C with Classes" and then "new C". Because of which the original C began to be called "old C" which was considered insulting to the C community. At this time Rick Mascitti suggested the name C++ as a successor to C. In C the '++' operator increments the value of the variable it is appended to, thus C++ would increment the value of C. Cookie — A packet of information that travels between a browser and the web server.
- The term was coined by web browser programmer Lou Montulli after the term "magic cookies" used by Unix programmers. COBOL - COmmon Business-Oriented Language
- CPU - An acronym for Central Processing Unit and is often used to refer to a computer system, such as “That beige box sitting next to my 24” flat screen monitor is my new CPU.” The “beige box” being referred to in the aforementioned statement is a computer system and not a CPU, the CPU is the chip inside the computer system known specifically as the microprocessor. Prior to the invention of the microprocessor in 1971 by Intel (the 4004) CPU’s were circuits consisting of many chips to make up the function of a programmable information processing and manipulation device.
- CSV - The comma-separated_values file format is a set of file formats used to store tabular data in which numbers and text are stored in plain textual form that can be read in a text editor.
- D — a programming language Walter Bright designed as an improved C, avoiding many of the design problems of C (e.g., extensive pointer manipulation, unenforced array boundaries, ...).
- Daemon — a process in an operating system that runs in the background.
- It is falsely considered an acronym for Disk And Execution MONitor. According to the original team that introduced the concept, "the use of the word daemon was inspired by the Maxwell's demon of physics and thermodynamics (an imaginary agent which helped sort molecules with differing velocities and worked tirelessly in the background)" thus evading the Laws of Thermodynamics. The earliest use appears to have been in the phrase "daemon of Socrates", which meant his "guiding or indwelling spirit; his genius", also a pre-Christian equivalent of the "Guardian Angel", or, alternatively, a demigod (who bears only an etymological connection to the word "demon"). The term was embraced, and possibly popularized, by the Unix operating systems which supported multiple background processes: various local (and later Internet) services were provided by daemons. This is exemplified by the BSD mascot, John Lasseter's drawing of a friendly imp (copyright Marshall Kirk McKusick). Thus, a daemon is something that works magically without anyone being much aware of it. Note that an alternative spelling is 'daemon', which is sometimes slightly differentiated in purpose from 'demon'. Debian — a Linux distribution, a portmanteau of the names Ian Murdock, the Debian Project creator, and Debra Lynn, Ian's then girlfriend and future wife.
- Emacs — a text editor written in 1976, acronym for editor macros
- finger — Unix command that provides information about users logged into a system
- Les Earnest wrote the finger program in 1971 to provide for users who wanted information about other users on a network or system. Before the finger program, the only way to get this information was with a who program that showed IDs and terminal line numbers for logged-in users; people used to run their fingers down the "who" list. Earnest named his program after this phenomenon. Foobar — from the U.S. Army slang acronym, FUBAR. Both foo and bar are used as metasyntatic variables.
- FQVS - Fully Qualified Virus Signature, the best candidate signature with minimum false-positives and false-negatives.
- Gentoo — a Linux distribution, named after a variety of penguin, the universal Linux mascot.
- GNU — a project with an original goal of creating a free operating system.
- Gnu is also a species of African antelope. The founder of the GNU project Richard Stallman liked the name because of the humour associated with its pronunciation and was also influenced by the song The Gnu Song, by Flanders and Swann which is a song sung by a gnu. It is also an early example of a recursive acronym: "GNU's Not Unix". Golden copy - A single copy of all of the data used, which is used by any application which requires the data.
- Google — search engine on the web.
- The name started as an exaggerated boast about the amount of information the search-engine would be able to search. It was originally named 'Googol', a word for the number represented by 1 followed by 100 zeros. The word was originally invented by Milton Sirotta, nephew of mathematician Edward Kasner in 1938 during a discussion of large numbers and exponential notation. Gopher — an early distributed document search and retrieval network protocol on the Internet
- The source of the name is claimed to be three-fold: first, that it is used to "go-for" information; second, that it does so through a menu of links analogous to gopher holes; and third, that the mascot of the protocol authors' organization, the University of Minnesota, is Goldy the Gopher. grep — a Unix command line utility
- The name comes from a command in the Unix text editor ed that takes the form g/re/p meaning search globally for a regular expression and print lines where instances are found. "Grep" like "Google" is often used as a verb, meaning "to search".
- Hotmail — free email service, now part of MSN.
- Founder Jack Smith got the idea of accessing e-mail via the web from a computer anywhere in the world. When Sabeer Bhatia came up with the business plan for the mail service, he tried all kinds of names ending in 'mail' and finally settled for Hotmail as it included the letters "HTML" — the markup language used to write web pages. It was initially referred to as HoTMaiL with selective upper casing. i18n — short for internationalization.
- "18" is for the number of letters between the i and the n. The term l10n (for localization) has failed to catch on to the same degree, but is used by some. ICQ — an instant messaging service.
- ICQ is not an initialism. It is a play on the phrase "I seek you" (similar to CQ in ham radio usage). ID10T - pronounced "ID ten T" - is a code frequently used by a customer service representative (CSR) to annotate their notes and identify the source of a problem as the person who is reporting the problem rather than the system being blamed. This is a thinly veiled reference to the CSR's opinion that the person reporting the problem is an IDIOT. Example: Problem reported caused by ID10T, no resolution possible. See also PEBKAC.
- Kerberos — a computer network authentication protocol that is used by both Windows 2000 and Windows XP as their default authentication method.
- When created by programmers at MIT in the 1970s, they wanted a name that suggested high security for the project, so they named it after the Greek mythology character kerberos, (also spelled Cerberus), the mythical three-headed canine guarding Hades' gates. The reference to Greek mythology is most likely because Kerberos was developed as part of Project Athena.
- Linux — an operating system kernel, and the common name for the operating system which uses it.
- Linux creator Linus Torvalds originally used the Minix operating system on his computer, didn't like it, liked MS-DOS less, and started a project to develop an operating system that would address the problems of Minix. Hence the working name was Linux (Linus' Minix). Originally, however, Linus had planned to have it named Freax (free + freak + x). His friend Ari Lemmke encouraged Linus to upload it to a network so it could be easily downloaded. Ari gave Linus a directory called linux on his FTP server, as he did not like the name Freax. Lisa — A personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s.
- Apple stated that LISA was an acronym for Local Integrated Software Architecture; however, it is often inferred that the machine was originally named after the daughter of Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, and that this acronym was invented later to fit the name. Accordingly, two humorous suggestions for expanding the acronym included Let's Invent Some Acronym and Let's Invent Silly Acronyms. Liveware - a term meaning computer personnel. It plays on the terms software and hardware. Coined in 1966, the word indicates that sometimes the computer problem is not with the computer itself, but with the user.
- Lotus Software — Lotus founder Mitch Kapor got the name for his company from 'The Lotus Position' ('Padmasana' in Sanskrit). Kapor used to be a teacher of Transcendental Meditation technique as taught by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.
- Coined by Donald Michie in his 1968 paper Memo Functions and Machine Learning. Mozilla — a web browser and successor to Netscape Communicator.
- When Marc Andreessen, founder of Netscape, created a browser to replace the Mosaic browser, it was internally named Mozilla (Mosaic-Killer, Godzilla). When Netscape's Navigator source code was made open source, Mozilla was the internal name for the open source version.
- Nerd — A colloquial term for a computer person, especially an obsessive, singularly focused one.
- Earlier spelling of the term is "Nurd" and the original spelling is "Knurd", but the pronunciation has remained the same. The term originated at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the late 1940s. Students who partied, and rarely studied were called "Drunks", while the opposite — students who never partied and always studied were "Knurd" ("Drunk" spelled backwards). The term was also (independently) used in a Dr. Seuss book, and on the TV show Happy Days, giving it international popularity. Novell NetWare — a network operating system from Novell.
- Novell, Inc. was originally Novell Data Systems co-founded by George Canova. The name was suggested by George's wife who mistakenly thought that "Novell" meant "new" in French. OLIVER - CICS interactive test/debug software.
- The name of this online interactive software - that prevented CICS system abends caused by applications programs - did not originate from "OnLIne VERification" or similar. It was the name of the author's son Oliver. Oracle — a relational database management system (RDBMS).
- Larry Ellison, Ed Oates and Bob Miner were working on a consulting project for the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency). The code name for the project was called Oracle (the CIA evidently saw this as a system that would give answers to all questions). The project was designed to use the newly written SQL database language from IBM. The project eventually was terminated but they decided to finish what they started and bring it to the world. They kept the name Oracle and created the RDBMS engine. SIMON - Batch Interactive test/debug software.
- The name of this instruction set simulator software - that allowed batch application programs to be tested interactively from online terminals - did not originate from "SIMulation ONline" or similar. It was the name of the author's other son (see Oliver above).
- Pac-Man — a video arcade game
- The term comes from paku paku which is a Japanese onomatopoeia (written version of a noise) used for noisy eating; similar to chomp chomp. The game was released in Japan with the name Puck-Man, and released in the US with the name Pac-Man, fearing that kids may deface a Puck-Man cabinet by changing the P to an F. PCMCIA — the standards body for PC card and ExpressCard, expansion card form factors.
- The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association is an international standards body that defines and promotes standards for expansion devices such as modems and external hard disk drives to be connected to notebook computers. Over time, the acronym PCMCIA has been used to refer to the PC card form factor used on notebook computers. A twist on the acronym is People Can't Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms. PEBKAC - an acronym for "Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair", which is a code frequently used by a customer service representative (CSR) to annotate their notes and identify the source of a problem as the person who is reporting the problem rather than the system being blamed. This is a thinly veiled reference to the CSR's opinion that the person reporting the problem is the problem. Example: PEBKAC, no resolution possible. See also ID10T.
- Pentium — Microprocessor from Intel
- The fifth microprocessor in the 80x86 series. It would have been called i586 or 80586, but Intel decided to name it Pentium (penta = five) after it lost a trademark infringement lawsuit against AMD due to a judgment that numbers like "286", "386", and "486" cannot be trademarked. According to Intel, Pentium conveys a meaning of strength, like titanium. Since some early Pentium chips contained a mathematical precision error, it has been jokingly suggested that the reason for the chip being named Pentium rather than 586 was that Intel chips would calculate 486 + 100 = 585.99999948. Perl — an interpreted scripting language
- Perl was originally named Pearl, after the "pearl of great price" of Matthew 13:46. Larry Wall, the creator of Perl, wanted to give the language a short name with positive connotations and claims to have looked at (and rejected) every three- and four-letter word in the dictionary. He even thought of naming it after his wife Gloria. Before the language's official release Wall discovered that there was already a programming language named Pearl, and changed the spelling of the name. Although the original manuals suggested the backronyms "Practical Extraction and Report Language" and "Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister", these were intended humorously. PHP — a server-side scripting language
- Originally called "Personal Home Page Tools" by creator Rasmus Lerdorf, it was rewritten by developers Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans who gave it the recursive name "PHP Hypertext Preprocessor". Lerdorf currently insists the name should not be thought of as standing for anything, for he selected "Personal Home Page" as the name when he did not foresee PHP evolving into a general-purpose programming language. Pine — e-mail client
- Acronym for "Program for Internet News & Email". It is also a recursive acronym for "Pine Is Not Elm" (in reference to Elm, another email client) Ping — computer network tool used to detect hosts
- The author of ping, Mike Muuss, named it after the pulses of sound made by a sonar called a "ping". Later Dave Mills provided the backronym "Packet Internet Groper". PKZIP — data compression or zipping tool. It was written by Phil Katz and stands for Phil Katz's ZIP program.
- Python — an interpreted scripting programming language. Named after the television series Monty Python's Flying Circus.
- Radio button — a GUI widget used for making selections.
- Radio buttons got their name from the preset buttons in radio receivers. When one used to select preset stations on a radio receiver physically instead of electronically, depressing one preset button would pop out whichever other button happened to be pushed in. Red Hat Linux — a Linux distribution from Red Hat.
- Company founder Marc Ewing was given the Cornell lacrosse team cap (with red and white stripes) while at college by his grandfather. People would turn to him to solve their problems, and he was referred to as "that guy in the red hat". He lost the cap and had to search for it desperately. The manual of the beta version of Red Hat Linux had an appeal to readers to return his Red Hat if found by anyone. RSA — an asymmetric algorithm for public key cryptography
- Based on the surnames of the authors of this algorithm — Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman.
- Samba software — a free implementation of Microsoft's networking protocol. The name samba comes from inserting two vowels into the name of the standard protocol that Microsoft Windows network file system use, called SMB (Server Message Block). The author searched a dictionary using grep for words containing S M and B in that order; the only matches were Samba and Salmonberry.
- SCO OpenServer, was SCO UNIX — a Unix variant from SCO.
- The company was called "Santa Cruz Operation", as its office was in Santa Cruz, California. sed — stands for stream editor, used for textual transformation of a sequential stream of text data. It is modelled after the ed editor.
- shareware — coined by Bob Wallace to describe his word processor PC-Write in early 1983. Before this Jim Knopf (also known as Jim Button) and Andrew Fluegelman called their distributed software "user supported software" and "freeware" respectively, but it was Wallace's terminology that prevailed.
- Slashdot — a technology oriented weblog
- While registering the domain, Slashdot-creator Rob Malda wanted to make the URL silly, and unpronounceable ("http://slashdot.org" gets pronounced as "h t t p colon slash slash slash dot dot org") Alternatively, many say that the Slashdot(/.) name refers to the *NIX command line interpretation of the "root" directory, or a play on the website being the "root" of all tech news. Sosumi — one of the system sounds introduced in Apple Computer's System 7 operating system in 1991.
- Apple Computer had a long litigation history with Apple Records, the Beatles' recording company. Fearing that the ability to record musical sound would cause yet more legal action, the Apple legal department allegedly ordered the sound to be renamed from its original, musical name. So the developers changed the name to Sosumi ("So sue me"). Depending on who was asked, they quipped that it was Japanese for either "absence of sound" or "a light pleasing tone". Spam — unwanted repetitious messages, such as unsolicited bulk e-mail
- Swing — a graphics library for Java.
- Swing was the code-name of the project that developed the new graphic components (the successor of AWT). It was named after swing, a style of dance band jazz that was popularized in the 1930s and unexpectedly revived in the 1990s. Although an unofficial name for the components, it gained popular acceptance with the use of the word in the package names for the Swing API, which begin with javax.swing.
- Tomcat — a web server from the Jakarta Project
- Tomcat was the code-name for the JSDK 2.1 project inside Sun. Tomcat started off as a servlet specification implementation by James Duncan Davidson who was a software architect at Sun. Davidson had initially hoped that the project would be made open-source, and since most open-source projects had O'Reilly books on them with an animal on the cover, he wanted to name the project after an animal. He came up with Tomcat since he reasoned the animal represented something that could take care of and fend for itself. Troff — a document processing system for Unix
- Troff stands for "typesetter roff", although many people have speculated that it actually means "Times roff" because of the use of the Times font family in troff by default. Troff has its origins from Roff, an earlier formatting program, whose name is a contraction of "run off". Trojan horse — a malicious program that is disguised as legitimate software.
- The term is derived from the classical myth of the Trojan Horse. Analogously, a Trojan horse appears innocuous (or even to be a gift), but in fact is a vehicle for bypassing security. Trusted data is data which is completely controlled by an entity you trust absolutely.
- "Twain" is a dated word for "two". Although TWAIN is not an acronym, it has often been referred to as an acronym for "Technology Without An Intelligent Name".
- Unix — an operating system.
- When Bell Labs pulled out of the MULTICS (MULTiplexed Information and Computing System) project, which was originally a joint Bell Labs/GE/MIT project, Ken Thompson of Bell Labs, soon joined by Dennis Ritchie, wrote a simpler version of the operating system for a spare DEC minicomputer, allegedly found in a corridor. They needed an OS to run the game Space War which had been compiled under MULTICS. The new OS was called UNICS — UNIplexed operating and Computing System by Brian Kernighan. An alternative spelling was Eunuchs, it being a sort of 'reduced' MULTICS. It was later shortened to Unix. vi — a text editor, initialism for visual, a command in the ex editor which helped users to switch to the visual mode from the ex mode. the first version was written by Bill Joy at UC Berkeley.
- Vim — a text editor, acronym for Vi improved after Vim added several features over the vi editor. Vim however had started out as an imitation of Vi and was expanded as Vi imitation.
- Virus — a piece of program code that spreads by making copies of itself.
- The term virus was first used as a technical computer science term by Fred Cohen in his 1984 paper "Experiments with Computer Viruses", where he credits Len Adleman with coining it. Although Cohen's use of virus may have been the first academic use, it had been in the common parlance long before that. A mid-1970s science fiction novel by David Gerrold, When H.A.R.L.I.E. was One, includes a description of a fictional computer program called VIRUS that worked just like a virus (and was countered by a program called ANTIBODY). The term "computer virus" also appears in the comic book "Uncanny X-Men" No. 158, published in 1982. A computer virus's basic function is to insert its own executable code into that of other existing executable files, literally making it the electronic equivalent to the biological virus, the basic function of which is to insert its genetic information into that of the invaded cell, forcing the cell to reproduce the virus.
- Wiki or WikiWiki — a hypertext document collection or the collaborative software used to create it.
- Coined by Ward Cunningham, the creator of the wiki concept, who named them for the "wiki wiki" or "quick" shuttle buses at Honolulu Airport. Wiki wiki was the first Hawaiian term he learned on his first visit to the islands. The airport counter agent directed him to take the wiki wiki bus between terminals. Worm — a self-replicating program, similar to a virus.
- The name 'worm' was taken from a 1970s science fiction novel by John Brunner entitled The Shockwave Rider. The book describes programs known as "tapeworms" which spread through a network for the purpose of deleting data. Researchers writing an early paper on experiments in distributed computing noted the similarities between their software and the program described by Brunner, and adopted that name. WYSIWYG - describes a system in which content during editing appears very similar to the final product.
- Acronym for What You See Is What You Get, the phrase was originated by a newsletter published by Arlene and Jose Ramos, called WYSIWYG. It was created for the emerging Pre-Press industry going electronic in the late 1970s. X Window System — a windowing system for computers with bitmap displays
- X derives its name as a successor to a pre-1983 window system called W (the W Window System). X follows W in the alphabet. Yahoo! — internet portal and web directory.
- Yahoo!'s history site says the name is an acronym for "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle", but some remember that in its early days (mid-1990s), when Yahoo! lived on a server called akebono.stanford.edu, it was glossed as "Yet Another Hierarchical Object Organizer." The word "Yahoo!" was originally invented by Jonathan Swift and used in his book Gulliver's Travels. It represents a person who is repulsive in appearance and action and is barely human. Yahoo! founders Jerry Yang and David Filo selected the name because they considered themselves yahoos. Zip — a file format now also used as a verb to mean compress
- The file format was created by Phil Katz, and given the name by his friend Robert Mahoney. The compression tool Phil Katz created was called PKZIP. Zip means "speed", and they wanted to imply their product would be faster than ARC and other compression formats of the time.
Absolute Accuracy | ADC - Analogue-to-Digital Converter | Alternating Current (ac) | Alumel | Ampere (A) | Amplifier | Amplitude | Analogue Input | Analogue Output | Analogue-to-Digital (A-D) Converter | Anti-Alias Filter | Argument | Backbone | Background noise | Batch process | Bathymetry | B-Type Thermocouple | C | Cable Gland | Calibratione | Capacitance | CE | Chromel | CMOS | Cold Junction | COM port | Common-Mode Rejection Ratio (cmrr) | Common-Mode Signal | Constantan | Contact emf | Contact Rating | Continuous Process | Crosstalk | Current | Current Sink | Current Source | DAC - Data Aquisition and Control | DAC - Digital-to-Analogue Converter | DAQ | Data Acquisition | Data Logging | DCE | Decibel | Device | Differential Amplifier | Differential Inputs | Digital Input | Digital Output | Digital-to-Analogue (D-A) Converter | Direct Current (dc) | DPM | Drift | Driver | DTE | Dynamic Crosstalk | Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) | Dynamic Range | EIA | Electromotive Force (emf) | Endurance limit | Ethernet | E-Type Thermocouple | Excitation | Fall Time | Farad | Fast Fourier Transfer (FFT) | FIFO buffer | Filtering | Frequency | Frequency Counter | Front panel | Full Scale Output | Gain | Gain Range | GIS | GPIB | GPRS | Ground | Ground-Truthed | Hardware Trigger | HART | Hertz (Hz) | Hexadecimal | High Pass Filter | Human machine interface (hmi) | I | I/O | IC | IEEE | IEEE-488 Bus | IML | Inductance | Input | Instrument | Integer | Integrated Circuit | Integration Time | Interface | Interpreter | Interrupt | Inverter | IrDA | ISA | ISO | | J-Type Thermocouple | k | K | K-Type Thermocouple | LAN | LIFO | LIMS | Linearity | Load Cell | Low Pass Filter | LVDT | m | M | Mains | Mains Frequency | MES | Metre | MIS | MMI | Modbus | Multiplexing | Network | Node | Noise | Non-Conforming | Non-Destructive Testing | NTSC | N-Type Thermocouple | Nyquist Theorem | OEM | Offset Error | Ohm | On-Off Control | Output | Output Sink Current | Output Source Current | PAL | PC | PCI | PCMCIA | Peer-to-Peer Communication | PI&D | PID | PLC | Pole | Port | Positive Temperature Coefficient | Protocol | Pulse | QA | Ramp Voltage | Range | Reed Relay | Relative Accuracy | Relay | Repeatability | Reproducibility | Resistance Temperature Device (RTD) | Resolution | Response Time | Rise Time | rms | RS232 | RS422 | RS485 | RTU | Sample and Hold | Sampling Rate | SCADA | Scan | Seebeck Effect | Self-Calibrating | Sensitivity | Sensor | Serial Communication | Set Point | Settling Time | SI | Signal | Signal Conditioning | Simultaneous Sampling | Sine Wave | Single-Ended Input | Sink Current | Slave | Slew Rate | Software Trigger | Solenoid | Source Current | Spike | Square Wave | Stability | Steady State Error | Strain | Strain Gauge | Successive Approximation | Surge | System | Talker | TCP/IP | Text Format | Thermal | Thermal Conductivity | Thermistor | Thermocouple | Time stamp | Transducer | Transient | Trigger | Truncation | TTL | TTL-Compatible | T-Type Thermocouple | Twisted Pair | UART | Unipolar | UPS | USB | VAC | Volt | Voltage | Voltage-to-Frequency Converter | WAN | Wheatstone Bridge | Wibree | Wi-Fi | WiMax | WSN | x-axis | y-axis | z-axis | Zero Balance | ZigBee
Der Verlag über das Buch
Niklaus Wirth is one of the great pioneers of computer technology and winner of the ACM’s A. M. Turing Award, the most prestigious award in computer science. He has made substantial contributions to the development of programming languages, compiler construction, programming methodology, and hardware design. While working at ETH Zürich, he developed the languages Pascal and Modula-2. He also designed an early high performance workstation, the Personal Computer Lilith, and most recently the language and operating system Oberon. While Wirth has often been praised for his excellent work as a language designer and engineer, he is also an outstanding educator - something for which he is not as well known. This book brings together prominent computer scientists to describe Wirth’s contributions to education. With the exception of some of his colleagues such as Professors Dijkstra, Hoare, and Rechenberg, all of the contributors to this book are students of Wirth. The essays provide a wide range of contemporary views on modern programming practice and also illuminate the one persistent and pervasive quality found in all his work: his unequivocal demand for simple solutions. The authors and editors hope to pass on their enthusiasm for simple engineering solutions along with their feeling for a man to whom they are all so indebted.
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Gebiete: audiovisuelle Medien und Radar, Client Server Systeme, Computerwesen, Datenübertragung, Elektronik, Elektrotechnik, Künstliche Intelligenz, Mathematik, Online-Dienste, Optik und Optronik, Physik, Printmedien, Programmieren, Telekommunikation, Tools/Arbeitsvorgänge/Management
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