Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology, (griech.) etymología, (lat.) etymologia, (esper.) etimologio
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, (esper.) Britujo
Ismus, Ismo, Isme, Ismo, Ism, (esper.) ismoj


adroit (W3)

Auf die Wurzel ide. "*reg-" werden mehrere Wortfamilien zurück geführt. Grob sind dies die Beutungsfamilien 1) "färben", 2) "sehen", 3) "regnen" und 4) "richten", "lenken", "führen".

Für ide. "*reg-" wird die Bedeutung dt. "gerade", "richten", "lenken", "recken", "strecken", "Richtung", "Linie", postuliert. Die Wortfamilie die darauf bezogen wird ist immens. Man findet die Wurzel heute als "-rec-", "-rech-", "-reg-", "-reich-", "-rek-", "-ri-", "-ric-", "-rich-", "-rig-", "-rix-", "-rog-", "-roi-", "-roy-", und vielen weiteren Präfixen, Infixen und Suffixen, denen man die Herkunft teilweise nicht mehr ansieht. Umgekehrt gibt es natürlich auch einige Wörter, die den Eindruck erwecken, zur Wortfamilie zu gehören, aber letztlich eine andere Herkunft haben.

Das frz. "adroit" = dt. "passend", "gefällig" läßt sich zurückführen auf lat. "*addirectus" = dt. "ausgerichtet", "wohlgeführt", zu lat. "ad" = dt. "zu", "bei", "an", und lat. "directus" = dt. "gerade gerichtet", "in gerader Richtung laufend", zu lat. "dirigere" = dt. "richten", "lenken", "gerade richten", "gerade machen", "geradeaus laufen lassen".

Engl. "adroit" wurde von frz. "adroit", "à droit", "adroite" = dt. "geschickt", "gewandt" übernommen.

"adroit" (Adjective) = engl. "dexterous", "clever", "deft".

"Dexterous", "deft", "adroit", and "nimble" all refer to "skillfulness".

"Adroit" and "dexterous" are near synonyms though "adroit" refers more to agility than to skill.

"Deft" implies "dexterity" and lightness, e.g. whipping egg whites with deft strokes of the hand, while

"nimble" implies "quickness", such as nimble fingering at the piano.

The noun is "adroitness" and the antonym, "maladroit", means "clumsy", "awkward".

From French, from "=E0 droit" = "to the right", another example of the success of conservatives in creating the illusion that everything right is good and normal, e.g. "right", "righteous", "upright", "dexterous" ("right" in Latin), "adroit" (French)" and everything left odd if not evil, e.g. "left-wing", "gauche" ("left" in French), "sinister" ("left" in Latin)".




ETYMOLOGY: French, from "à droit" : "à" = "to" (from Latin "ad"; see "ad–") + "droit" = "right" (from Latin "directus"; see "direct").

OTHER FORMS: "adroitly", ADVERB "adroitness", NOUN


"ADROIT XX" - "Adverse Drug Reactions Online Information Tracking"


"adroit", adjective ("more adroit" or "adroiter", "most adroit" or "adroitest")

"dexterous", "deft" or "skillful"

Translations: German: "geschickt", "gewandt"

Etymology: (í) "droit" ("right").


"adroit", Adjective

Meaning: "Dexterous", "deft", "nimble-fingered", "artful"; 2having skills or talents that makes doing things seem easy".

Notes: Today's Good Word comes accompanied by an adverb, "adroitly", and a straightforward noun, "adroitness". No spelling traps so long as you remember the "OY" sound is spelled "oi" as in "Detroit".

In Play: ...

Word History: Today's Good Word comes from French "adroit", a word made from the Old French phrase "à" = "to" + "droit" = "right" (both senses of the word), "direct". "Droit" is a direct descendant from Late Latin "directum" = "right", "justice", the accusative case of "directus" = "straight". "Directus" is the past participle of the verb "dirigere", a variant of "deregere" = "to set or lay straight", comprising de "from" + "regere" = "to keep or lead straight", "to guide". This is the root of "rex" = "king", and "regal". It also produced "regular" which, after passing through French, was reduced to "rule". English, as is its wont, borrowed this word at every step of its development, even though it had its own Germanic version of the original PIE root, "right".


ADREIT (s.xiiex)

adrait, adroit; adret

[ FEW: 3,90a directus; Gdf: 1,118a adroit 3; GdfC: 8,36a adroit; TL: 1,158 adroit; DEAF: Ø; DMF: adroit; TLF: adroit; OED: Ø; MED: ; DMLBS: Ø ]



AWWY: "adroit"; "dexterity"; "gauche" ("left"); "left" (associations with evil); "left-handed" compliment (insult); Right and Left; "sinister" ("left")


E. Cobham Brewer 1810–1897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.


properly means "to the right" (French, "à droite"). The French call a person who is not adroit "gauche" ("left-handed"), meaning awkward, boorish.


"adroit", adjective ...

First recorded in 1645–55; from French, Old French: "elegant", "skillful", equivalent to "a-" = "a-" (5) + "droit", "dreit" = "straight", "just", "correct", from Latin "directus"; see "direct"


"adroit" (adj.)

1650s, "dexterous", originally "rightly", from French "adroit", which by Old French had senses "upright" (physically and morally); "able", "clever", "skillful"; "well-formed", "handsome"; "on the right-hand side"; "veritable", from adverbial phrase "à droit" = "according to right".

This is from Old French "à" = "to" (see "ad-") + "droit", "dreit" = "right", from Medieval Latin "directum" (contracted "drictum") = "right", "justice", "law", neuter or accusative of Latin "directus" = "straight", past participle of "dirigere" = "set straight", from "dis-" = "apart" (see "dis-") + "regere" = "to direct", "to guide", 2keep straight" (from PIE root "*reg-" = "move in a straight line", with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line", thus "to lead", "rule"). It expresses prominently the idea of a trained hand. Related: "Adroitly"; "adroitness".


"*reg-": Proto-Indo-European root meaning "move in a straight line", with derivatives meaning "to direct in a straight line", thus "to lead", "rule".

It forms all or part of:

"abrogate"; "address"; "adroit"; "Alaric"; "alert"; "anorectic"; "anorexia"; "arrogant"; "arrogate"; "bishopric"; "correct"; "corvee"; "derecho"; "derogate"; "derogatory"; "Dietrich"; "direct"; "dress"; "eldritch"; "erect"; "ergo"; "Eric"; "Frederick"; "Henry"; "incorrigible"; "interregnum"; "interrogate"; "maharajah"; "Maratha"; "prerogative"; "prorogue"; "rack" (n.1) "frame with bars"; "rail" (n.1) "horizontal bar passing from one post or support to another"; "Raj"; "rajah"; "rake" (n.1) "toothed tool for drawing or scraping things together"; "rake" (n.2) "debauchee; idle, dissolute person"; "rakish"; "rank" (adj.) "corrupt, loathsome, foul"; "real" (n.) "small Spanish silver coin"; "realm"; "reck"; "reckless"; "reckon"; "rectangle"; "rectify"; "rectilinear"; "rectitude"; "recto"; "recto-"; "rector"; "rectum"; "regal"; "regent"; "regicide"; "regime"; "regimen"; "regiment"; "region"; "regular"; "regulate"; "Regulus"; "Reich"; "reign"; "resurgent"; "rex"; "rich"; "right"; "Risorgimento"; "rogation"; "royal"; "rule"; "sord"; "source"; "subrogate"; "subrogation"; "surge"; "surrogate"; "viceroy".

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:


"Adroit" Schriftfamilie

Entworfen von Phil Martin (1981)


1652: "adroit"


Did you know?

"Adroit" goes back to an Old French word meaning "handsome or elegant" as well as "skilled in combat". The adjective is still used to imply skillfulness, but usually not of the physical kind. "Adroit" most often describes cleverness that achieves one's purpose in spite of difficulties.


Limericks on "adroit"


Limericks on "adroitly"


Limericks on "adroitness"


We found 35 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word "adroit":



"adroit": Anything of exceptional or superlative quality. From the French word for right-handed.

"Adroit": Skilled, from french, meaning usage of right hand, also some moron named adroit zencyde comes to mind, i wanna kill that guy, but remember, adroit means skilled



Right On Word of the Day:

The French have a very different way of pronouncing this word than speakers of English do, but it's the same word and it's originally their word. It means "elegant", "skillful", which is what it also means in English. Don't confuse it with "à droite" = "to the right" in French, which lumps semantically in "droit" what English lumps in "right". You might sleuthfully see in "adroit" the Latin ancestor that also gives us "direct".



Borrowed from French "adroit", from French "à" ("on the"; "to") (from Old French "a" ("to"; "towards"), from Latin "ad" ("to"; "towards"), from Proto-Indo-European "*ád" ("at"; "near")) + French "droit" ("right") (from Old French "droit", "dreit", from Vulgar Latin "*drectus", syncopated form of Latin "directus" ("laid straight"; "direct", "straight"; "level"; "upright"), perfective passive participle of "dirigo" ("to lay straight"), from "dis-" ("apart", "in two") (from Proto-Indo-European "*dwís" ("twice"; "in two")) + "rego" ("to govern", "rule"; "to guide", "steer") (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European "*hrégeti" ("to be straightening", "setting upright"))).

'dexterous, clever, deft'; From French 'à droit' - 'to the right'

French from "à droit", "à" = "to" (from Latin "ad" = "ad–") "droit" = "right" (from Latin "directus" = "direct")

Borrowed from French "adroit".

Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "adroit" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 / 1690 auf.

Erstellt: 2022-12



handkerchief (W3)

Das engl. "curfew" (14. Jh.) = dt. "Ausgehverbot", "Ausgangssperre", "Zapfenstreich" (ab etwa 19. Jh.) = engl. "a regulation requiring that people leave the streets and remain at home" ist ein Wort, dessen Geschichte mir gut gefällt.

Die Bezeichnung geht zurück auf mittelalterliche Zeiten, in denen das Schlagen einer (Kirchen-)Glocke die Bürger aufforderte ihre Feuerstellen zu sichern (das Feuer zu löschen) und sich auf das Schlafengehen vorzubereiten. (Viele schwere Brände waren Anlaß zu dieser Maßnahme.) Die Order hieß frz. "couvre feu" = engl. "cover fire", das zu engl. "curfew" korrumpiert wurde. Frz. "feu" = dt. "Feuer" geht zurück auf lat. "focus" = dt. "Pfanne", "Opferpfanne", "Brandaltar", "Feuerstätte", "Herd", "Feuer", "Glut", "Brandstätte des Scheiterhaufens".

Interessant ist auch ein weiteres Wort in dem das verdeckte engl. "cover" steckt. Engl. "kerchief", geht ebenfalls auf ein altfrz. "couvrechief" zurück und setzt sich zusammen aus frz. "couvrir" = dt. "bedecken" und frz. "chef" = dt. "Kopf" (über galloroman. "*capum" zu lat. "caput" = dt. "Kopf", "Haupt"). Engl. "kerchief" (13. Jh.) ist also eine "Kopfbedeckung" (mengl. "courchef", anglo-frz. "coverchef", "cuerchief", zu "coverir" = engl. "cover" + "chef" = "head") - und über eine nicht mehr im Detail nachvollziehbare Assoziationskette (vielleicht über die Verwendung von Taschentüchern als Kopfbedeckung an heißen Tagen) kam es zu engl. "handkerchief" (1530) = dt. "Taschentuch" (wörtlich also eine "Hand-Bedeckung-Kopf").




"curfew", Noun

Meaning: ...
Word History:

Today's Good Word has a rich family history. It comes from Middle English "curfeu", a word borrowed from the Old French phrase "cuevre feu" = "cover the fire", from the verb that today is "couvrir" = "to cover" + "feu" = "fire". A "curfew" originally was the time when you had to put out your fires, candles, and lamps. French "couvrir" is the direct descendant of Latin "cooperire" = "to cover up" from "co-", an intensive prefix + "operire" = "to cover".

The same French verb went into the making of "kerchief", originally Old French "couvrechief" from the words that are today "couvrir" + "chef" = "head". (Thank the craziness of the English spelling system for the initial "K".)

You might be surprised at where "feu" = "fire" came from. It was originally Latin "focus" = "hearth", "fireplace", a word English borrowed directly from Latin, giving it the meaning of the place where the fire starts when you hold a lens beneath the sun.


Blanche Heriot and the Curfew Bell


A statue of the heroine who stopped time to save her betrothed.

IN THE TOWN OF CHERTSEY stands a statue of a young woman grabbing the clapper of a church bell. The piece, created by Shelia Mitchell, depicts a story that dates back to the 15th century. The woman is the statue is Blanche Heriot, who stopped the "curfew bell" to save her fiancé from being executed.


In Iceland, Cats Face Curfews and Bans Aimed at Curtailing Their Murderous Ways

The cat-loving island nation is redefining its relationship with the ‘elegant assassins.’



Levoca "Cage of Shame"

Levoca, Slovakia

Too much gossip or just missing curfew could land you in here for a couple of days.


E. Cobham Brewer 1810–1897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898.

"Curfew Bell"

The bell rung in the reigns of William I. and II. at sunset, to give notice to their subjects that they were to put out their fires and candles (French, "couvre feu", "cover-fire"). The Klokans in Abo, even to the present day, traverse the towns crying the "go-to-bed time". Those abroad are told to "make haste home", and those at home to "put out their fires". Abolished, as a police regulation, by Henry I. 1

“The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.”

Gray: Elegy.


WWII sherry bottle Clifton Rocks Railway

This is a 1 pint bottle of "Curfew Astral sherry", bottled by Spackman and Gosling who were Bristol wine and spirit importers. It was found under the war-time ledges built on top of the railway lines when the railway tunnel was converted for wartime use. It is such a wonderful name for a sherry to be drunk during the war and one can imagine it being passed around the people sitting on nearby ledges during the night time. The Clifton residents felt safe in the tunnel and came down every night. The bottle was then left under the ledge ready for us to discover it 70 years later (along with beer, milk and lemonade bottles and other artefacts)


"curfew", noun


Le "Cobrifuòc" = "couvre-feu" est très actuel dans le Magreb; spécialement en Egypte. L’étymologie est bien sûr le même que celui du français "couvre-feu", latin "cooperire" + "focus". J’en parle parce que pour tenir mon anglais à niveau, je reçois régulièrement le New York Times (gratuit) qui signalait le "curfew" à Caïro. J’ai cliqué sur le mot et le NYT dictionnaire m’explique que "curfew" est notre "couvre-feu" et me donne en plus la prononciation anglaise! Dans ce dictionnaire il y a aussi l’extrait d’une encyclopédie qui note que "curfew" vient de l’ancien français. ou mieux de l’ancien anglo-normand. En effet "corfu" y est attesté au XIIIe siècle.


"curfew" (n.), early 14c., "curfeu" = "evening signal", "ringing of a bell at a fixed hour" as a signal to extinguish fires and lights, from Anglo-French "coeverfu" (late 13c.), from Old French "cuevrefeu", literally "cover fire" (Modern French "couvre-feu"), from "cuevre", imperative of "covrir" = "to cover" (see "cover" (v.)) + "feu" = "fire" (see "focus" (n.)). Related: "Curfew-bell" (early 14c.).

The medieval practice of ringing a bell (usually at 8 or 9 p.m.) as an order to bank the hearths and prepare for sleep was to prevent conflagrations from untended fires. The modern extended sense of "periodic restriction of movement" had evolved by 1800s.


ide. "*wer-" (4): Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to cover".

It forms all or part of:

  • engl. "aperitif"
  • engl. "apertive"
  • engl. "aperture"
  • engl. "barbican"
  • engl. "cover"
  • engl. "covert"
  • engl. "curfew"
  • engl. "discover"
  • engl. "garage"
  • engl. "garment"
  • engl. "garnish"
  • engl. "garret"
  • engl. "garrison"
  • engl. "guarantee"
  • engl. "guaranty"
  • engl. "kerchief"
  • engl. "landwehr"
  • engl. "operculum"
  • engl. "overt"
  • engl. "overture"
  • engl. "pert"
  • engl. "warn"
  • engl. "warrant"
  • engl. "warrantee"
  • engl. "warranty"
  • engl. "warren"
  • engl. "wat"
  • engl. "Wehrmacht"
  • engl. "weir"

  • It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by:


    1945 A wartime midnight curfew on nightclubs, bars and other places of entertainment goes into effect in the U.S.


    Sprache: "Corona(virus)" - "Ausgangssperre" - "Schutzmaske"

    Englisch: "coronavirus" - "curfew", "curfew hours", "travel curfew" - mask


    Holmes, John Haynes, 1879-1964

    The Poetical Works of Oliver Wendell Holmes - Volume 10: Before the Curfew (English) (as Author)



    Covers, Discoveries, Handkerchiefs and Curfews

    I have been considering the word "cover". This is partly because "The Etymologicon", "The Horologicon" and "The Elements of Eloquence" have been reprinted in a beautiful new edition, just in time for Christmas; and partly because I am an extraordinarily dull and lonely fellow.

    I also have a cold, which is putting great strain on my collection of handkerchiefs. Now a "handkerchief" is obviously a "kerchief" that you hold "in your hand". That much is obvious. But it leaves the throbbing question of "What is a kerchief?".

    Well a "chief" is a "head". That's true in English, is true in French (where the "head cook" is the "chef"), and it was true in medieval French where your "chief" was your "head". If, for some French reason, you wished to cover your "chief" you used a piece of cloth called a "cover-chief" or, in French a "couvrechief".

    This was what we would call a "headscarf", but that's just a square of cloth really. So a "couvrechief" came into English as a "kerchief" and hence a "handkerchief" is, literally, a "handheld-cover-head". But I employ mine to blow my nose.

    (Incidentally, the more obscure word for "blowing your nose" is "emunction". This may come in useful. 'Tis the season and all that. The Anglo-Saxon word for the practice was sniting, but I digress down needless nostrils).

    The other thing that Medieval French people liked to cover were their fires. They did this at the end of the day to make the fire burn down to a smoulder. Then they would toddle off to bed. In the morning, they would stir the fire up to a blaze and have a nice French breakfast.

    In French this was called the "couvre-feu", or "cover-fire". There used to be a bell that was rung to tell everybody that it was time to cover their fire and go to bed. This tolling bell became known in English as the "curfew". And hence a "curfew" is any "requirement to go to bed", whether ding-donged or not.

    Anyway, the word "cover" has various other meanings and variations of varying mysteriousness. You can cover more ground by moving fast, you can cover for a colleague, a journalist can cover a subject (presumably in ink), and a gunman can have you covered. No amount of research has explained to me why a cover version is called that. But my favourite cover lingers in plain sight. It is the word "discover".

    To "dis-cover" something is to "remove its cover". Once upon a time this could be used for anything. So a strong wind could discover a house, i.e. blow its roof off. A chef could discover a bowl. One could discover one's Christmas presents by unwrapping them. It is the sense of something that was once covered having its cover removed. This is rather beautiful when you think about it in its modern sense. The "discovery" of America, for example, suggests that there was a whole veiled continent, until Mr Columbus pulled the curtain away and discovered it.




    a law that does not allow people to go outside between a particular time in the evening and a particular time in the morning

    the period of time during which people must not go outside according to a curfew law

    Origin and usage

    The noun "curfew" came into English from French words meaning "cover" and "fire". It has been in use since the late 13th century.


    The origin of the word "curfew" lies in medieval health and safety restrictions. Since most buildings were made of flammable materials, households were ordered to cover or extinguish domestic fires and naked flames overnight to prevent them setting light to buildings while people were asleep. A bell was rung to indicate the time when this should be done. This meaning was later extended to refer to an order to people to stay indoors or the period when this was to be done, usually overnight.

    While the term "curfew" is still being used in reference to the coronavirus pandemic, another more recent term, "lockdown", is often preferred. "Lockdowns" have been very much in the news recently, first with reference to other countries and now referring to the UK, where a government-ordered lockdown has been put in place that is severe, but less severe than in some other places. As currently used, "lockdown" refers to a situation in which most citizens are being asked or ordered to remain indoors, not for a few hours but for an extended period of weeks or even months, in order to try to control the spread of the novel coronavirus.


    14TH CENTURY: "curfew"


    "curfew", noun

    Did you know?

    In medieval Europe, a bell rang every evening at a fixed hour, and townspeople were required by law to cover or extinguish their hearth fires. It was the "cover fire" bell, or, as it was referred to in Anglo-French, "coverfeu" (from the French verb meaning "to cover", and the word for "fire"). By the time the English version, "curfew", appeared, the authorities no longer regulated hearth fires, but an evening bell continued to be rung for various purposes—whether to signal the close of day, an evening burial, or enforcement of some other evening regulation. This "bell ringing at evening" became the first English sense of "curfew". Not infrequently, the regulation signaled by the "curfew" involved regulating people's movement in the streets, and this led to the modern senses of the word.

    What is the origin of "curfew"?

    During the Middle Ages, houses in European towns were often made of wood and were close together, and fires could quickly spread from house to house. To prevent this, people were required to put out or cover their hearth fires by a certain time in the evening. A bell was rung as a signal when the time had come. In early French this signal was called "coverfeu", a compound of "covrir", meaning "to cover", and "feu" = "fire". Even when hearth fires were no longer regulated, many towns had other rules that called for the ringing of an evening bell, and this signal was still called "coverfeu". A common "coverfeu" regulation required people to be off the streets by a given time. That was the meaning of the word when it was borrowed into Middle English as "curfew".


    In Cairo, a Curfew Against Chaos



    Limericks on "curfew"


    We found 37 dictionaries with English definitions that include the word "curfew"


    Shakespeare concordance: all instances of "curfew"

    "curfew" occurs 3 times in 4 speeches within 4 works.


    "curfew-bell" occurs 1 time in 1 speech within 1 work.


    The "curfew bell" has a long history. Although extinct for the most part, in the Derbyshire Peak district of the UK there is one place where it can still be heard. For almost 20 years it has been rung every Saturday night beginning on 29 September at 7 o'clock by the same person in the town of Castleton.

    The tradition closes down for the year on Shrove Tuesday around the third week in February with an 11 am "Pancake Bell". The Pancake Bell is another old custom that occurs on the day after Ash Wednesday, also known as "Pancake Day".

    The Castleton "curfew bell" used to be rung from the parish church to guide wayfarers safely towards a town or village as darkness fell, or when bad weather made it difficult to follow track ways. Originally though, the "curfew" was a signal to people to extinguish their lights and fires at the end of the day.

    This was a safety measure to prevent accidental fires, dating from early medieval times when most buildings were made from timber. Until the year 1100 it was against the law to burn any lights after the ringing of the curfew bell.

    The word "curfew" comes from the French "couvre-feu", the name of a cover which was used to smother a fire by cutting off the air.

    So if you are within earshot of Castleton on a Saturday night between the end of September and Pancake Day, listen for the sound of the time when there were no motor cars, tarmac, street lights or mobile phones.


    "curfew" (n.) - Old form(s): "Curfewe", "Curphew" = "evening bell"


    Last orders! The origins of the word "curfew"
    Steven Poole

    Fri 25 Sep 2020 06.30 BST

    In June Boris Johnson told the country it was our patriotic duty to go to the pub and spread the coronavirus: that having been an effective message, the government is now mandating the early closure of pubs and restaurants in what is being called a "curfew", as though it were the public and not the government who were a bunch of unruly children.

    "Curfew" is a contraction of the original French "couvre-feu", meaning literally "cover the fire". In medieval Europe, it was common for a bell to be rung at a certain hour in the evening (often eight o’clock) indicating that all fires must be covered or put out, in order to prevent domestic fires from accidentally burning down whole villages or towns.

    The term was subsequently borrowed to refer to a restriction on citizens’ movements after dark, but the traditional "ringing of curfew" by church bells persisted long after its original purpose, as in Grey’s "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard": "The curfew tolls the knell of parting day." Now it is tolling the knell of parting beer. One may doubt, though, that these curfews will suffice to put out the fire of the resurgent pandemic.


    curfew / sundown town

    Kansas City, Missouri sign indicating a nighttime curfew is in effect for minors, 2013

    8 June 2020

    A "curfew" is a law or regulation requiring that people be off the streets at a certain hour. Curfews can be either temporary or permanent, and they can apply to everyone or only to certain categories of people.

    The word, like many English legal terms, comes from Anglo-Norman, the dialect of French spoken in England following the Norman Conquest. The Anglo-Norman "coeverfeu", a compound of "couvre" (imperative form, "to cover") + "feu" ("fire"), an order that fires should be banked and lights extinguished. The word also applied to the tolling of bells that signaled the start of the "curfew". The French word appears in the 1285 Statutes for the City of London:
    "Curfew" appears in English by c. 1330 when it is used in the poem "The Seven Sages of Rome", found in the Auchinleck Manuscript, Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, Advocates 19.2.1:

    Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

    Engl. "curfew" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1670 / 1760 auf.

    Erstellt: 2022-12




    Words of French origin
    Many words from French are used in English


    Erstellt: 2020-05


    hodgepodge (W3)

    "Hotchpotch" bezeichnet ein Eintopfgericht aus Gemüse mit Fleisch. Engl. "hotchpotch" geht zurück auf frz. "hochepot", mit frz. "hocher" = dt. "schütteln" und "pot" = dt. "Topf". Heute hat es auch die Bedeutung dt. "Mischmasch", engl. "a motley assortment of things", oder auch dt. "Sammelsurium", "Kauderwelsch".

    Aus einer nicht mehr auffindbaren Quelle:

    "Olio" means a miscellaneous mixture or "hodgepodge", such as in cooking.

    It can also mean a miscellaneous collection of art or musical selections.

    Altered from Spanish: "Olla" or Port. "Olha", "hotchpotch"

    Latin: "olla" = "pot", "jar". Cookery origin.



    Also a jumble of different elements and originally a stew of various vegetables and meat, - the word is a variant of "hotchpotch", wherein the cooking pot is evident. "Mr. [Paul] Screvane found the report 'a hodgepodge of what everybody knows, of what others have said, and what some people have been whispering back of the hand' " (New York Times, 12/31/64).


    special(i)ty, newspaper editing jargon and dogpile

    Oct 4, 2007

    As the title reveals, this post is a (AmE) "hodgepodge" / (BrE) "hotchpotch" of unrelated topics, which will serve the purpose of (a) finishing up the queries from April, and (b) writing a quick entry in a really busy week. (It's both Lynneukah [the joyous festival of Lynne] and week 1 of the university term. One of those is more entertaining than the other.)

    Terry wrote back in April, pointing out that I'd failed (as I'm sure I often do) to mark a BrE/AmE difference that I'd used in passing: (AmE) "specialty" versus (BrE) "speciality". There's not much more to say about that, except that in BrE "specialty" is used in the field of medicine, at least according to the Oxford Dictionary of English.

    But in the ensuing correspondence, Terry called my attention to quite a bit of newspaper editing jargon that differs between the US and the UK. Terry is a (BrE) "sub-editor" / (AmE) "copy editor", and the differences do not stop at the job title. Here are the ones he listed - and as far as I can tell, the American versions come first in this list:

    ... there's a surprising amount of difference in terminology between US papers and Brtitish ones: "slot" and "rim" (from where people sit at the horseshoe-shaped copy desk) versus "chief sub" and "down-table sub" for example, indicating American and British newspapers used differently shaped tables; "hed" versus "headline" and "lede" versus "intro" (ie opening sentence - a "lead" (pronounced [in the same way as] "lede") in BrE journalism, would mean the whole main story on a page, not just its intro); "cutline" for "caption", "graf" instead of "par" for paragraph, "refer" for "cross-ref", the line at the foot of a story that cross-refers to another story elsewhere in the paper, "slug" for "catchline", the short name given to a story for tracking purposes; "soft strip" for "strapline", a long subsidiary headline.


    Three other words for "stew" derive from forms of French: "hotchpotch" (from the Anglo-French term meaning "to shake" combined with "pot"), which was altered to "hodgepodge"; "ragout", which comes from the French verb "ragoûter", meaning "to revive the taste" (the second syllable is related to "gusto", meaning "taste" or "enthusiasm", and "gustatory", meaning "relating to taste or tasting"); and "gallimaufry", from "galimafree", a Middle French term for "stew".


    Interessant fand ich bei der Lektüre der alten sprachpflegerischen Schrift, dass neben einer Reihe von Anglizismen, die heute ganz unauffällig in allgemeinem Gebrauch sind wie "Boiler", "Film", "Partner", "Pudding" und "Safe" eine große Anzahl von entlehnten Ausdrücken getadelt werden, die im wilhelminischen Deutschland offensichtlich gern gebraucht wurden, derzeit aber in deutschen Kontexten kaum oder gar nicht mehr vorkommen.

    Heutzutage würde man sich schwerlich mit seinen Bekannten zum "Luncheon" oder "Supper" im "Grill-room" verabreden, zu einer "Garden-Party" oder zum "Five o'clock tea" im häuslichen "Drawing-room", um den Kauf von "Shares" zu erörtern.

    In Berlin und Dresden scheint dies noch vor hundert Jahren durchaus üblich gewesen zu sein. Solche Ausdrücke sind längst außer Gebrauch geraten wie auch "Havelock", "Ulster", "Ribbon Tie", "Mackintosh", "Fronts", "Knicker-bockers" und "Reefer", die man nicht mehr trägt, die "Dog-carts", "Gigs", "Breaks", "Tilburies" und "Broughams", mit denen kein Mensch mehr fährt, die Tänze "Two step", "Sir Roger" und "Cake walk", die kaum mehr jemand kennt, oder "Hotchpotch" und "Mock-turtel-soup", die man anders als "Rostbeef" und "Rumpsteak" auf hiesigen Speisekarten nicht mehr findet.

    Dafür kannten Dunger und seine Zeitgenossen noch keine "Hamburger", "Cheeseburger" und "Hot-dogs", trugen kein "T-Shirt", "Sweat-Shirt", "Dress-Hemd", "Shorts" oder "Jeans", fuhren in ihrer Freizeit weder "Skateboard", "Mountainbike" noch "Inline-Skates" und diskutierten als Geschäftspartner sicher nicht darüber, ob sie das "Recyceln" demnächst "outsorcen" sollten.

    Mit dem Kommen und Gehen mancher Sachen und Sachverhalte kommen und gehen offensichtlich auch die Wörter.


    linguistics and lexicography • Love English

    6 years ago - by Stan Carey

    A "hotchpotch" of reduplication

    "Argy-bargy" and "lovey-dovey" lie on opposite ends of the interpersonal scale, but they have something obvious in common: both are reduplicatives.

    Reduplication is when a word or part of a word is repeated, sometimes modified, and added to make a longer term, such as "aye-aye", "mishmash", and "hotchpotch". This process can mark plurality or intensify meaning, and it can be used for effect or to generate new words. The added part may be invented or it may be an existing word whose form and sense are a suitable fit.

    Reduplicatives emerge early in our language-learning lives. As infants in the babbling phase we reduplicate syllables to utter "mama", "dada", "nana" and "papa", which is where these pet names come from. Later we use "moo-moo", "choo-choo", "wee-wee" and "bow-wow" (or similar) to refer to familiar things. The repetition, as well as being fun, might help children develop and practise the pronunciation of sounds.

    As childhood progresses, reduplicatives remain popular, popping up in children’s books, songs and rhymes. Many characters in children’s stories have reduplicated names: "Humpty Dumpty", "Chicken Licken" and "Handy Andy", to name a few.

    Reduplication can be categorised as follows: exact or repeating reduplication ("bye-bye", "hush-hush", "goody-goody"), rhyming reduplication ("itsy-bitsy", "okey-dokey", "boogie woogie"), and ablaut reduplication ("chit-chat", "tip-top", "riff-raff"). "Ablaut" is a term introduced by Jacob Grimm; it refers to vowel change, which in reduplicatives often follows certain patterns: "zigzag", "knick-knack", "mingle-mangle", or "criss-cross", "flip-flop", "sing-song".

    Clusters of letters recur, as in "shilly-shally", "dilly-dally", "silly billy" and "willy-nilly", while "h" is a common first letter, appearing thus in "helter-skelter", "heebie-jeebies", "hurdy-gurdy", "hurly-burly", "higgledy-piggledy", "hocus-pocus", and "hob-nob". Some reduplication is onomatopoetic or echoic: "pitter-patter", "splish splash", "ding-dong" and "tick-tock" are like miniature poems, popular with people of all ages who appreciate the playful evocation of the sound referred to.

    In her paper "A crosslinguistic study of reduplication" (PDF), Shanthi Nadarajan writes that both repetition and reduplication ‘exist functionally and pragmatically in all types of everyday English’, and that while not all reduplication is meaningful, it is undoubtedly ‘interesting word play which can serve to enrich any language’.

    Reduplication is for everyone, be they "arty-farty" or "fuddy-duddy", "ragbag" or "hoity-toity", "razzle-dazzle" or "nitty-gritty". You can use it on a "walkie-talkie", or to distract listeners from your "mumbo-jumbo". Chances are you’ve created your own examples of ‘shm-reduplication’, as in "fancy schmancy" or "rhyme shmyme" (both "shm–" and "schm–" are used). There’s nothing "wishy-washy" about my feelings for reduplication: I think it’s just "super-duper".



    Meaning: "hodgepodge"

    If the word "gallimaufry" doesn't make your mouth water, it may be because you don't know its history. In the 16th century, Middle-French speaking cooks made a meat stew called "galimafree". It must have been a varied dish, because English speakers chose its name for any mix or jumble of things. If "gallimaufry" isn't to your taste, season your speech with one of its synonyms: "hash" (which can be a muddle or chopped meat and potatoes), "hotchpotch" (a stew or a "hodgepodge"), or "potpourri" (another stew turned medley).


    Origin and Etymology of "hotchpotch"

    Middle English "hochepot", from Anglo-French, from "hocher" "to shake" + "pot" "pot"


    "hodgepodge": A mixture of many things, a conglomeration, a confused mess. The word, used since the late 15th century, derives from the French "hocher", “to shake together,” and "pot", “pot”, which yielded the French word "hochepot" for a stew made of many ingredients. "Hochepot" became "hotchpotch" and, finally, "hodgepodge" in English.


    "hotchpotch": The jumbled "hotchpotch", or "hodgepodge", is thought to derive from the French "hochepot", a meaty stew containing a similarly random medley of ingredients.


    See a map of "hotchpotch" in the Visual Thesaurus

    Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

    Engl. "hotchpotch" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1750 auf.


    Erstellt: 2018-08



    K - TFoMEL
    The Fate of Middle English Loanwords from French


    Seminararbeit von Diana Sklarzik -- PDF-Format

    Erstellt: 2023-02



    marriage of convenience (W3)

    Als Lehnübersetzungen sind zu finden:
    8 Words We Stole from French
    ...some of which mean different things in English
    12 French Phrases from Downton Abbey



    A Marker of Class

    Erstellt: 2024-01







    T - ToE
    Terms of Enrichment: How French Has Influenced English
    Their Intertwined History, and Shared Words and Expressions



    Without going into too much detail, here is a little background about other languages that have also shaped English. The language grew out of the dialects of three German tribes (Angles, Jutes, and Saxons) who settled in Britain around 450 A.D. This group of dialects forms what we refer to as Anglo-Saxon, which gradually developed into Old English. The Germanic base was influenced in varying degrees by Celtic, Latin, and Old Norse.

    Bill Bryson, a noted American linguist of the English language, calls the Norman conquest of 1066 the "final cataclysm [that] awaited the English language." When William the Conqueror became king of England, French took over as the language of the courts, administration, and literature—and stayed there for 300 years.

    Another rare but interesting remnant of French influence is in the word order of expressions like secretary general and surgeon general, where English has retained the noun + adjective word order typical in French, rather than the usual adjective + noun sequence used in English.
    The following is a list of words and expressions of French origin that are commonly used in English.

    French Words and Phrases Related to the Arts

    French - English (literal) - Explanation

    French Ballet Terms Used in English

    French has also given English scores of words in the domain of ballet. The literal meanings of the adopted French words are below.

    French - English

    Food and Cooking Terms

    In addition to the below, French has given us the following food-related terms: blanch (to lighten in color, parboil; from blanchir), sauté (fried over high heat), fondue (melted), purée (crushed), flambée (burned).

    French - English (literal) - Explanation

    Fashion and Style

    French - English (literal) - Explanation

    Erstellt: 2020-06



    English terms borrowed from French


    Pages in category "English terms borrowed from French"

    The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 4,006 total.

    Erstellt: 2020-11