Etymologie, Etimología, Étymologie, Etimologia, Etymology
UK Vereinigtes Königreich Großbritannien und Nordirland, Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Regno Unito di Gran Bretagna e Irlanda del Nord, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Region, Región, Région, Regione, Region

England, Angleterre, England

County of East Sussex

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Hastings (W3)

Die Ortsbezeichnung engl. "Hastings" (einer Stadt in Sussex, in deren Nähe am 14.10.1066 die normannische Eröberung Englands begann), altengl. ""Hæstingas" bezieht sich auf eine Person ("*Hæsta") oder Familiengruppe und bedeutet wörtlich "Die Leute / das Volk des / der Hæsta", "*Hæsta-Leute".

14. Oct. 1066: At the "Battle of Hastings", fought this day in 1066, King Harold II of England was defeated by the invading army of William, duke of Normandy, in the Norman Conquest, establishing Normans as rulers of England.

Personen mit Bezug zu "Hastings":

(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20120624180701/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Hastings_%28Family%29

Hastings (Family)

"HASTINGS", a famous English family. John, Baron Hastings (c. 1262 - c. 1313), was a son of Sir Henry de Hastings (d. 1268), who was summoned to parliament as a baron by Simon de Montfort in 1264. Having joined Montfort's party Sir Henry led the Londoners at the battle of Lewes and was taken prisoner at Evesham. After his release he continued his opposition to Henry III.; he was among those who resisted the king at Kenilworth, and after the issue of the Dictum de Kenilworth he commanded the remnants of the baronial party when they made their last stand in the isle of Ely, submitting to Henry in July 1267. His younger son, Edmund, was specially noted for his military services in Scotland during the reign of Edward I. John Hastings married Isabella (d. 1305), daughter of William de Valence, earl of Pembroke, a half-brother of Henry III., and fought in Scotland and in Wales. Through his mother, Joanna de Cantilupe, he inherited the extensive lordship of Abergavenny, hence he is sometimes referred to as lord of Bergavenny, and in 1295 he was summoned to parliament as a baron. Before this date, however, he had come somewhat prominently to the front. His paternal grandmother, Ada, was a younger daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon, and a niece of the Scottish king, William the Lion; and in 1290 when Margaret, the maid of Norway, died, Hastings came forward as a claimant for the vacant throne. Although unsuccessful in the matter he did not swerve from his loyalty to Edward I. He fought constantly either in France or in Scotland; he led the bishop of Durham's men at the celebrated siege of Carlaverock castle in 130o; and with his brother Edmund he signed the letter which in 1301 the English barons sent to Pope Boniface VIII. repudiating papal interference in the affairs of Scotland; on two occasions he represented the king in Aquitaine. Hastings died in 1312 or 1313. His second wife was Isabella, daughter of the elder Hugh le Despenser. Hastings, who was one of the most wealthy and powerful nobles of his time, stood high in the regard of the king and is lauded by the chroniclers.

His eldest son John (d. 1325), who succeeded to the barony, was the father of Laurence Hastings, who was created earl of Pembroke in 1339, the earls of Pembroke retaining the barony of Hastings until 1389. A younger son by a second marriage, Sir Hugh Hastings (c. 1307-1347), saw a good deal of military service in France; his portrait and also that of his wife may still be seen on the east window of Elsing church, which contains a beautiful brass to his memory.

On the death of John, the third and last earl of Pembroke of the Hastings family, in 1389, Sir Hugh's son John had, according to a decision of the House of Lords in 1840, a title to the barony of Hastings, but he did not prosecute his claim and he died without sons in 1393. However his grand-nephew and heir, Hugh (d. 1396), claimed the barony, which was also claimed by Reginald, Lord Grey of Ruthyn. Like the earls of Pembroke, Grey was descended through his grandmother, Elizabeth Hastings, from John, Lord Hastings, by his first wife; Hugh, on the other hand, was descended from John's second wife. After Hugh's death his brother, Sir Edward Hastings (c. 1382-1438), claimed the barony, and the case as to who should bear the arms of the Hastings family came before the court of chivalry. In 1410 it was decided in favour of Grey, who thereupon assumed the arms. Both disputants still claimed the barony, but the view seems to have prevailed that it had fallen into abeyance in 1389. Sir Edward was imprisoned for refusing to pay his rival's costs, and he was probably still in prison when he died in January 1438. After his death the Hastings family, which became extinct during the 16th century, tacitly abandoned the claim to the barony. Then in 1840 the title was revived in favour of Sir Jacob Astley, Bart. (1797-1859), who derived his claim from a daughter of Sir Hugh Hastings who died in 1540. Sir Jacob's descendant, Albert Edward (b. 1882), became 21st Baron Hastings in 1904.

A distant relative of the same family was William, Baron Hastings (c. 1430-1483), a son of Sir Leonard Hastings (d. 1455). He became attached to Edward IV., whom he served before his accession to the throne, and after this event he became master of the mint, chamberlain of the royal household and one of the king's most trusted advisers. Having been made a baron in 1461, he married Catherine, daughter of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury, and was frequently sent on diplomatic errands to Burgundy and elsewhere. He was faithful to Edward IV. during the king's exile in the winter of 1470-1471, and after his return he fought for him at Barnet and at Tewkesbury; he has been accused of taking part in the murder of Henry VI.'s son, prince Edward, after the latter battle. Hastings succeeded his sovereign in the favour of Jane Shore. He was made captain of Calais in 1471, and was with Edward IV.when he met Louis XI. of France at Picquigny in 1475, on which occasion he received gifts from Louis and from Charles the Bold of Burgundy. After Edward IV.'s death Hastings behaved in a somewhat undecided manner. He disliked the queen, Elizabeth Woodville, but he refused to ally himself with Richard, duke of Gloucester, afterwards King Richard III. Suddenly Richard decided to get rid of him, and during a meeting of the council on the 13th of June 1383 he was seized and at once put to death. This dramatic incident is related by Sir Thomas More in his History ofRichard///.,and has been worked by Shakespeare into his play Richard III. Hastings is highly praised by his friend Philippe de Commines, and also by More. He left a son, Edward (d. 1508), the father of George, Baron Hastings (c. 1488-1545), who was created earl of Huntingdon (q.v.) in 1529.

When Francis, Loth earl of Huntingdon, died in October 1789, the barony of Hastings passed to his sister Elizabeth (1 731-1808), wife of John Rawdon, earl of Moira, and from her it came to her son Francis Rawdon-Hastings (see below), who was created marquess of Hastings in 1817.


(E?)(L?) http://web.archive.org/web/20120307225653/http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Hastings%2C_England

Hastings, England

"HASTINGS", a municipal, county and parliamentary borough and watering-place of Sussex, England, one of the Cinque Ports, 62 m. S.E. by S. from London, on the South Eastern & Chatham and the London, Brighton & South Coast railways. Pop. (1901), 65,528. It is picturesquely situated at the mouth of two narrow valleys, and, being sheltered by considerable hills on the north and east, has an especially mild climate. Eastward along the coast towards Fairlight, and inland, the country is beautiful. A parade fronts the English Channel, and connects the town on the west with St Leonard's, which is included within the borough. This is mainly a residential quarter, and has four railway stations on the lines serving Hastings. Both Hastings and St Leonard's have fine piers; there is a covered parade known as the Marina, and the Alexandra Park of 75 acres was opened in 1891. There are also numerous public gardens. The sandy beach is extensive, and affords excellent bathing.

On the brink of the West Cliff stand a square and a circular tower and other fragments of the castle, probably erected soon after the time of "William the Conqueror"; together with the ruins, opened up by excavation in 1824, of the castle chapel, a transitional Norman structure 1 10 ft. long, with a nave, chancel and aisles. Besides the chapel there was formerly a college, both being under the control of a dean and secular canons. The deanery was held by Thomas Becket, and one of the canonries by William of Wykeham. The principal public buildings are the old parish churches of All Saints and St Clements, the first containing in its register for 1619 the baptism of Titus Oates, whose father was rector of the parish; numerous modern churches, the town hall (1880); theatre, music hall and assembly rooms. The Brassey Institute contains a public library, museum and art school. The Albert Memorial clock-tower was erected in 1864. Educational institutions include the grammar school (1883), school of science and art (1878) and technical schools. At the west end of the town are several hospitals and convalescent homes. The prosperity of the town depends almost wholly on its reputation as a wateringplace, but there is a small fishing and boat-building industry. In 1890 an act of parliament authorized the construction of a harbour, but the work, begun in 1896, was not completed. The fish-market beneath the castle cliff is picturesque. The parliamentary borough, returning one member, falls within the Rye division of the county. The county borough was created in 1888. The municipal borough is under a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors. Area, 4857 acres.

Rock shelters on Castle Hill and numerous flint instruments which have been discovered at Hastings point to an extensive neolithic population, and there are ancient earthworks and a promontory camp of unknown date. There is no evidence that Hastings was a Roman settlement, but it was a place of some note in the Anglo-Saxon period. In 795 land at Hastings ("Haestingaceaster", "Haestingas", "Haestingaport") is included in a grant, which may possibly be a forgery, of a South Saxon chieftain to the abbey of St Denis in France; and a royal mint was established at the town by lEthelstan.

The "battle of Hastings" in 1066 described below was the first and decisive act of the Norman Conquest. It was fought near the present Battle Abbey, about 6 m. inland. After the Conquest William I. erected the earthworks of the existing castle. By 1086 Hastings was a borough and had given its name to the rape of Sussex in which it lay. The town at that time had a harbour and a market. Whether Hastings was one of the towns afterwards known as the Cinque Ports at the time when they received their first charter from Edward the Confessor is uncertain, but in the reign of William I. it was undoubtedly among them. These combined towns, of which Hastings was the head, had special liberties and a separate jurisdiction under a warden. The only charter peculiar to Hastings was granted in 1589 by Elizabeth, and incorporated the borough under the name of "mayor, jurats and commonalty," instead of the former title of "bailiff, jurats and commonalty." Hastings returned two members to parliament probably from 1322, and certainly from 1366, until 1885, when the number was reduced to one.

Battle of Hastings

On the 28th of September t066, "William of Normandy", bent on asserting by arms his right to the English crown, landed at Pevensey. King Harold, who had destroyed the invaders of northern England at the battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, on hearing the news hurried southward, gathering what forces he could on the way. He took up his position, athwart the road from Hastings to London, on a hill' some 6 m. inland from Hastings, with his back to the great forest of Anderida (the Weald) and in front of him a long glacislike slope, at the bottom of which began the opposing slope of Telham Hill. The English army was composed almost entirely of infantry. The shire levies, for the most part destitute of body armour and with miscellaneous and, even improvised weapons, were arranged on either flank of Harold's guards (huscarles), picked men armed principally with the Danish axe and shield.

Before this position Duke William appeared on the morning of the 14th of October. His host, composed not only of his Norman vassals but of barons, knights and adventurers from all quarters, was arranged in a centre and two wings, each corps having its archers and arblasters in the front line, the rest of the infantry in the second and the heavy armoured cavalry in the third. Neither the arrows nor the charge of the second line of foot-men, who, unlike the English, wore defensive mail, made any impression on the English standing in a serried mass behind their interlocked shields.' Then the heavy cavalry came on, led by the duke and his brother Odo, and encouraged by the example of the minstrel Taillefer, who rode forward, tossing and catching his sword, into the midst of the English line before he was pulled down and killed. All along the front the cavalry came to close quarters with the defenders, but the long powerful Danish axes were ' Freeman called this hill Senlac and introduced the fashion of describing the battle as "the battle of Senlac." Mr J. H. Round, however, proved conclusively that this name, being French (Senlecque), could not have been in use at the time of the Conquest, that the battlefield had in fact no name, pointing out that in William of Malmesbury and in Domesday Book the battle is called "of Hastings" (Bellum Hastingense), while only one writer, Ordericus Vitalis, describes it two hundred years after the event as Bellum Senlacium. See Round, Feudal England (London, 1895), p. 333 et seq.

There is still a difference of opinion as to whether the English were, or were not, defended by any other rampart than that of the customary "shield-wall." Freeman, apparently as a result of a misunderstanding of a passage in Henry of Huntingdon and the slightly ambiguous verse of Wace in the Roman du Rou (11.69916 994 and 11.7815-7826), affirms that Harold turned "the battle as far as possible into the likeness of a siege," by building round his troops a "palisade" of solid timber (Norman Conquest, iii. 444). This was proved to be a fable by J. H. Round, .in the course of a general attack on Freeman's historical method, which provoked the professor's defenders to take up the cudgels on his behalf in a very long and lively controversy. The result of this was that Freeman's account was wholly discredited, though Round's view - that there was no wall of any kind save the shield-wall - is not generally accepted. Professor Oman (Academy, June 9, 1894), for instance, holds that there was "an abattis of some sort" set to hamper the advance of cavalry (see also English History, vol. ix., P. 474). Mr Round sums up the controversy, from his point of view, in his Feudal England, p. 340 et seq., where references to other monographs on the subject will be found.

As formidable as the halbert and the bill proved to be in battles of later centuries, and they lopped off the arms of the assailants and cut down their horses. The fire of the attack died out and the left wing (Bretons) fled in rout. But as the fyrd levies broke out of the line and pursued the Bretons down the hill in a wild, formless mob, William's cavalry swung round and destroyed them, and this suggested to the duke to repeat deliberately what the Bretons had done from fear. Another advance, followed by a feigned retreat, drew down a second large body of the English from the crest, and these in turn, once in the open, were ridden over and slaughtered by the men-at-arms. Lastly, these two disasters having weakened the defenders both materially and morally, William subjected the lefuscarles, who had stood fast when the fyrd broke its ranks, to a constant rain of arrows, varied from time to time by cavalry charges. These magnificent soldiers endured the trial for many hours, from noon till close on nightfall; but at last, when the Norman archers raised their bows so as to pitch the arrows at a steep angle of descent in the midst of the huscarles, the strain became too great. While some rushed forward alone or in twos and threes to die in the midst of the enemy, the remainder stood fast, too closely crowded almost for the wounded to drop. At last Harold received a mortal wound, the English began to waver, and the knights forced their way in. Only a remnant of the defenders made its way back to the forest; and William, after resting for a night on the hardly-won ground, began the work of the Norman Conquest.


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/-yn_ZR6ZRrGco_nbBt4IYQ

Baird Televisor

This was possibly the last time a lone inventor working in difficult conditions (rented room in "Hastings") and with virtually no budget (my father tried to raise money for Baird) could invent something that would change the world. Although modern television uses nothing of his original work, the existance of a working prototype became the catalyst to stimulate the development of what we have today.


(E?)(L?) http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/CDWOVqLFT1W60_mn0CWVXw

This painting, entitled 'On the East Hill, Hastings' was painted by John Thorpe. He was the brother of my great great grandfather. He had two daughters and moved to New York to found a Dominican convent shortly after he painted this picture.


(E?)(L?) www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/

Normans

The story behind the Battle of Hastings, and the leaders who fought it out in 1066.

Overview: The Normans 1066 - 1154 Background to the Norman Conquest The Events of 1066 The Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of Britain The Domesday Book Norman Art and Architecture


(E?)(L?) http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/creator/9542

Hastings Museum and Art Gallery

An account of the British hydroid zoophytes collected by Philip James Rufford : and exhibited in cases in the Hastings and St. Leonards Museum.
By: Rufford, Philip James. - Hastings Museum and Art Gallery. - St. Leonards Museum.
Publication info: Claremont, Hastings :Hastings Museum,[1902]
Holding Institution: Smithsonian Libraries
View Book

The economy of British hydroid zoophytes
By: Rufford, Philip James. - Crake, W. V. - Hastings Museum and Art Gallery.
Publication info: Claremont, Hastings :Hastings Museum,[1902?]
Holding Institution: Smithsonian Libraries
View Book


(E?)(L?) http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/




(E?)(L?) http://isi.cbs.nl/glossary/term1490.htm

Glossary of statistical terms: "Hastings approximations"


(E?)(L?) http://isi.cbs.nl/glossary/term2085.htm

Glossary of statistical terms: "Metropolis-Hastings algorithm"


(E2)(L1) http://uk.epodunk.com/communities-england.html

Hastings (town), East Sussex


(E?)(L?) http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Hastings

"Hastings", town in Sussex, site of the great battle in the Norman conquest of England (Oct. 14, 1066), Old English "Hæstingas" "The Hastings; settlement of the family or followers of a man called "*Hæsta"; literally "Hæsta's People".

The "Hæstingas" were an important tribal group referred to in an 8th cent. Northumbrian chronicle as the "gens Hestingorum" which seems to have kept a separate identity as late as the early 11th cent. ["Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names"]


(E?)(L?) https://www.hastings.gov.uk/

Hastings Online


(E?)(L?) http://www.hmag.org.uk/

Hastings Museum & Art Gallery


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(E?)(L?) http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/ads-l/2006-December/subject.html




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(E?)(L?) https://structurae.de/bauwerke/hastings-pier

Hastings Pier

Lage: "Hastings", East Sussex, South East England, England, Großbritannien
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(E?)(L?) http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/0/battle-of-hastings-9-things-you-might-not-know/

Battle of Hastings 950 year anniversary: the 9 things you might not know


(E?)(L?) https://www.visit1066country.com/history/battle-of-hastings

The Battle of Hastings took place at the site now known as Battle on 14 October 1066, and is one of the best known events in England’s history.
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(E?)(L?) https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hastings

Borough of Hastings, East Sussex

Hastings ist eine Stadt in der Grafschaft (county) East Sussex an der Straße von Dover im Südosten Englands mit etwa 90.000 Einwohnern.

Hastings ist auf Grund der fünf Kilometer langen Strandpromenade ein beliebtes Seebad, in dem auch noch Fischerei betrieben wird (siehe Sehenswürdigkeiten).

Geschichte

Wahrscheinlich schon in vorgeschichtlicher Zeit besiedelt, entwickelte sich Hastings im frühen Mittelalter zu einer blühenden Hafenstadt, die im 11. Jahrhundert mit vier weiteren Hafenstädten (New Romney, Hythe, Dover und Sandwich) den Bund Cinque Ports (fünf Häfen) schloss.

Am 28. September 1066 ging "Wilhelm der Eroberer", der Herzog der Normandie, mit seinem Heer bei Hastings an Land, wo er am 14. Oktober 1066 in der Schlacht bei Hastings (die allerdings nicht bei Hastings, sondern bei der heutigen Ortschaft "Battle" stattfand) Harold Godwinson (Harald II.), den letzten angelsächsischen König Englands, besiegte und tötete. Der Sieg der Normannen leitete deren Herrschaft über England ein. 1377 wurde Hastings von den Franzosen geplündert und gebrandschatzt, was den Niedergang der Stadt einleitete. Im 18. Jahrhundert gewann Hastings als Seebad wieder an Bedeutung.
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(E1)(L1) http://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?corpus=0&content=Hastings
Abfrage im Google-Corpus mit 15Mio. eingescannter Bücher von 1500 bis heute.

Engl. "Hastings" taucht in der Literatur um das Jahr 1570 auf.

(E?)(L?) http://corpora.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/


(E?)(L?) http://www.wordmap.co/#Hastings

This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.


Erstellt: 2017-12

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