As its acronym implies, "IARPA" has a lot in common with "DARPA", or the "Defense Advanced Research Projects Activity". After the Russians launched Sputnik in 1957, which served as the sounding gun of the space race, the United States responded by forming "DARPA" to help it catch up. This relatively small organization with a $3 billion annual operating budget now sponsors external research and development projects that can potentially yield dramatic results [source: DARPA]. Its commonly cited successes include the Internet and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) [source: Weinberger].
The Office of the Director of National Intelligence designed "IARPA" to follow a template similar to "DARPA". Although the size of IARPA's slice of the $43 billion intelligence pie remains classified, it will outsource "high-risk, high-yield" research to public and private groups, including universities, companies and national laboratories. That means its home base at the University of Maryland won't be overrun with scientists and technicians fiddling with quantum computers [source: Lawlor]. Instead, it will scatter projects among different locations.
The precursor to the Internet, it was a network developed in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s by the U.S. Department of Defense. As an experiment in wide area networking (WAN), ARPANet was developed with the goal of being robust enough to survive a nuclear war. Part of the experiment was to study how distributed, noncentralized networks work.
Because "ARPA"'s name was changed to "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency" ("DARPA") in 1971, "ARPANET" is sometimes referred to as "DARPANET". ("DARPA" was changed back to "ARPA" in 1993 and back to "DARPA" again in 1996.) The history of ARPANET and developments leading up to today's Internet can be found in Where Wizards Stay Up Late, by Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon.
Hubble: Monitoring Internet Reachability in Real-Time
Having trouble accessing a favorite Web site? Perhaps the site was taken offline, or the computer hosting it is down for maintenance. However, the cause could be something more mysterious. At any given moment, a portion of Internet traffic ends up being routed into information "black holes." These are situations where advertised paths exist to the destination, but messages - a request to visit a Web site, an outgoing e-mail - get lost along the way.
Hubble is a system that operates continuously to find persistent Internet black holes as they occur. Hubble has operated continuously since September 17, 2007. During that time, it identified 926,044 black holes and reachability problems. In the most recent quarter-hourly round, completed at 00:32 PDT, 04/28/2008, Hubble issued 52,525 traceroutes to 1,737 prefixes it identified as likely to be experiencing problems (of 78,772 total prefixes monitored by the system). Of these, it found 684 prefixes to be unreachable from all its vantage points and 824 to be reachable from some vantage points and not others. Below the following map, you'll find instructions on interpreting and navigating this page. You can go here for a more detailed description of the Hubble academic research project and its goals. Below, you can look up Hubble's current view of the reachability of the address of your choice. Feel free to send suggestions and other feedback to hubble-support.
..., to look up the current status of a particular address, enter a DNS name, URL, or IP address:
| AAG (Asia-American Gateway) | AC-1 | AC-2 | ACE | ADRIA-1 | AKORN Alaska-Oregon | ALBA-1 | ALETAR | ALPAL-2 | ANTILLAS I | APCN | APCN2 | APHRODITE-2 | APNG-2 | ARCOS-1 | ASH (American Samoa - Hawaii) | ATLANTIS-2 | Alaska United - East | Alaska United - West | Alonso de Ojeda | Americas II | Americas-1 North | Americas-1 South | Antilles Crossing | Apollo | Argentina-Uruguay | Ariane 2 | Atlas Offshore | Australia-Japan Cable | Australia-Singapore Cable | BAHAMAS-2 | BALTICA | BARSAV | BCS East | BCS East-West Interlink | BCS North I | BCS North II | BDNSi | BERYTAR | BICS | BSFOCS | BT-Manx NI | Balkans-Italy Network | Basslink Telecom | Bharat Lanka Cable System | Botnia | CADMOS | CANTAT-3 | CANUS-1 | CC4 | CC5 | CFX-1 | CIOS | CIRCE North | CIRCE South | COLUMBUS II | COLUMBUS III | CORSAR (Corsica- Sardinia) | CUCN | Caucasus Cable System | Cayman-Jamaica | CeltixConnect | Challenger | Concerto 1 | Corfu-Bar | Danica North | Danica South | Danice submarine cable | Denmark-Germany 2 | Denmark-Norway 5 | Denmark-Norway 6 | Denmark-Poland 2 | Denmark-Sweden 15 | Denmark-Sweden 16 | Dumai-Melaka | EAC | EASSY | ECFS | EESF-2 (Finland-Estonia 2) | EESF-3 (Finland--Estonia 3) | EIG | ESAT 1 | ESAT 2 | Estepona Â? Tetuan | Estonia-Sweden 1 | FARICE-1 | FARLAND | FLAG Alcatel-Lucent Optical Network (FALCON) | FLAG Atlantic (FA-1) | FLAG Europe Asia (FEA) | FLAG North Asia Loop (FNAL) | FOG (Fibre Optic Gulf) | Fehmarn Belt | Fibralink | Finland-Sweden 4 (SFS-4) | G-P | GLO1 | GO-1 | Gemini | Georgia-Russia | Global Carribean Network (GCN) | GlobeNet | Gondwana-1 | Greenland Connect | HANNIBAL | HANTRU-1 | HONOTUA Domestic | HONOTUA International | HUGO | Hibernia Atlantic | Hokkaido-Sakhalin Cable System (HSCS) | I-ME-WE | ITUR | Italy-Albania | Italy-Greece | Italy-Libya | JAKABARE | JASURAUS | Japan-US | KAFOS | KINYRAS | Kategat-1 | Kodiak Kenai | Korea-Japan Cable Network (KJCN) | Kuwait-Iran | LEV | LIME | LION | LION2 | MAYA-1 | MINERVA | MainOne | Matrix cable system | Med Cable | MedNautilus | Melita-1 | Mid-Atlantic Crossing (MAC) | Moratelindo Batam Dumai Cable (MBDC) | Moratelindo International Cable (MIC-1) | NorSea Com 1 | NorthStar | PAN AM | PC-1 | PPC-1 | Pacific Fibre | Pan-American Crossing (PAC) | | Qatar-UAE Submarine Cable System | RIOJA-3 | RJK | RNAL | Russia-Japan Cable Network (RJCN) | SAFE | SAS (Samoa - American Samoa) | SAS-1 | SAT-2 | SAT-3 | SAex | SAm-1 | SEA-ME-WE 3 | SEA-ME-WE-4 | SEACOM | SEAK | SEAS | SHEFA-2 | SLT-Dhiraagu | SMPR-1 | SOLAS | Scandinavian Ring North | Scandinavian Ring South | Sirius North | Sirius South | South American Crossing (SAC | Southern Cross | Suriname-Guyana (SG-SCS) | Svalbard Undersea Cable System | Sweden-Finland Link (SFL) | TAT-14 | TE North | TEAMs | TGN Atlantic | TGN Northern Europe | TGN Transpacific | TGN Western Europe | TGN-P | TPC-5CN | TURCYOS-1 | TURCYOS-2 | TURMEOS-1 | Tangerine | Tasman-2 | Tata Indicom (TIISCS) | Tata TGN Intra-Asia (TGN-IA) | Telstra Bass Strait 1 | Telstra Bass Strait 2 | Telstra Endeavour | Thailand-Indonesia-Singapore (TIS) | Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong (T-V-H) | Trans-Pacific Express | Transworld (TWA-1) | Trapani-Kelibia (KELTRA-2) | Trinidad-Curaco | UGARIT | UK-Channel Isles 7 | UK-Germany 6 | ULYSSES | ULYSSES 2 | UNISUR | Unity | VMSCS | Ventspils-Farosund-Stockholm | WACS | WARF | i2i
- HOME: about | conference calendar | how-to | jobs | legal | staff | joining | program plan
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- TOOLS: measurement | taxonomy | utilities | visualization
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- PROJECTS: Macroscopic Topology | PREDICT | Day in the Life | IMDC | Ark | Network Telescope | Coralreef | IIC Wiki | COMMONS | IPNC
- FUNDING: Cybersecurity | Cisco | CONMI | DNS-ITR | NeTS-FIND | PREDICT | WIDE | Program Plan | Proposals
- Alle Länder-Domains (ccTLDs) der Welt auf einen Blick
- Übersicht aller Länder-Codes mit Längen- und Breitengraden
- Hochwertiger, laminierter Vollfarb-Druck im Großformat
Auch wenn so genannte generische Endungen (gTLDs) wie zum Beispiel .com, .net oder .info bei der Zahl der weltweit registrierten Domains überlegen sein mögen, dominieren dennoch die Länder-Endungen (ccTLDs) das Geschehen: angefangen bei .ac (Ascension Island) über .de (Deutschland) bis hin zu .zw (Zimbawe), sind aktuell über 240 verschiedene Domain-Endungen in der offiziellen Datenbank der Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) verzeichnet. Um in diesem Adressdickicht den Überblick zu behalten, hat united-domains.de nun erstmalig eine detaillierte Übersicht mit tabellarischer Auflistung aller ccTLDs erstellt, und sie in einer Weltkarte graphisch aufbereitet.
1990 was a momentous year in world events. In February, Nelson Mandela was freed after 27 years in prison. In April, the space shuttle Discovery carried the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit. And in October, Germany was reunified.
Then at the end of 1990, a revolution took place that changed the way we live today.
Paris (dpa) - Es ist eine kleine Revolution im Internet: Künftig können Internet-Adressen frei gewählte Endungen bekommen. Das entschied die Internet-Verwaltung ICANN am Donnerstag bei Beratungen in Paris. Neben den bisher üblichen Domain-Namen «.de» oder «.com» kann es künftig auch Endungen wie Städte- oder Firmen-Namen geben, zum Beispiel «.berlin» oder «.ebay». Anfang kommenden Jahres sollen sollen sich Interessenten für die neuen Adressen bewerben können. Experten rechnen mit Preisen in Höhe von mehreren Zehntausend Euro. Im Hintergrund der Freigabe steht die Sorge, das nach dem bisherigen System in den kommenden fünf Jahren die Adressnamen hätten knapp können. Im vergangenen Jahr sollen nur noch 17 Prozent der ursprünglich vorhandenen vier Milliarden Adressen verfügbar gewesen sein.
Das Internet wird polyglott
10.10.2007 um 11:29 Uhr
Die meisten Internet-Nutzer werden davon zwar nichts bemerkt haben, aber der Unterbau des weltumspannenden IP-Netzes wurde gestern einer der fundamentalsten Veränderungen seit 20 Jahren unterzogen.
Das "Domain Name System" ("DNS") des Internet unterstützt jetzt nämlich elf nicht-englische Sprachen erstmals in deren nativen, nichtlateinischen Zeichensätzen. Gestern morgen hatte dazu die "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN") die Top-Level-Domain ".test" in Arabisch, Persisch, Russisch, Hindi, Griechisch, Koreanisch, Hebräisch, Japanisch, Tamil sowie zwei Varianten des Chinesischen auf die Root-Server des DNS gespielt.
In seinem Roman „Newromancer“ prägt William Gibson im Jahr 1984 den Begriff "Cyberspace".
PDF poster (best printed at A3 size) showing the GÉANT2 network, including dark fibre connections.
"Dark Fibre" links provide multiple wavelengths at 10 Gbps. "Dark Fibre" links also have backup IP connections. Details of these can be found at www.geant2.net.
The Domain Name System: A Non-Technical Explanation - Why Universal Resolvability Is Important
What is the Domain Name System?
The "Domain Name System" ("DNS") helps users to find their way around the Internet. Every computer on the Internet has a unique address - just like a telephone number - which is a rather complicated string of numbers. It is called its "IP address" (IP stands for "Internet Protocol").
But it is hard to remember everyone's IP address. The DNS makes it easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing 220.127.116.11, you can type www.icann.org. It is a "mnemonic" device that makes addresses easier to remember.
Translating the name into the IP address is called "resolving the domain name." The goal of the DNS is for any Internet user any place in the world to reach a specific website IP address by entering its domain name. Domain names are also used for reaching e-mail addresses and for other Internet applications.
This RFC introduces domain style names, their use for ARPA Internet mail and host address support, and the protocols and servers used to implement domain name facilities.
This memo describes the conceptual framework of the domain system and some uses, but it omits many uses, fields, and implementation details. A complete specification of formats, timeouts, etc. is presented in RFC 883, "Domain Names - Implementation and Specification". That RFC assumes that the reader is familiar with the concepts discussed in this memo.
This memo discusses the implementation of domain name servers and resolvers, specifies the format of transactions, and discusses the use of domain names in the context of existing mail systems and other network software.
This memo assumes that the reader is familiar with RFC 882, "Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities" which discusses the basic principles of domain names and their use.
The algorithms and internal data structures used in this memo are offered as suggestions rather than requirements; implementers are free to design their own structures so long as the same external behavior is achieved.
1. STATUS OF THIS MEMO
This RFC is an introduction to the Domain Name System (DNS), and omits many details which can be found in a companion RFC, "Domain Names - Implementation and Specification" [RFC-1035]. That RFC assumes that the reader is familiar with the concepts discussed in this memo.
A subset of DNS functions and data types constitute an official protocol. The official protocol includes standard queries and their responses and most of the Internet class data formats (e.g., host addresses).
However, the domain system is intentionally extensible. Researchers are continuously proposing, implementing and experimenting with new data types, query types, classes, functions, etc. Thus while the components of the official protocol are expected to stay essentially unchanged and operate as a production service, experimental behavior should always be expected in extensions beyond the official protocol. Experimental or obsolete features are clearly marked in these RFCs, and such information should be used with caution.
The reader is especially cautioned not to depend on the values which appear in examples to be current or complete, since their purpose is primarily pedagogical. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
Willkommen am Ende des Internets!
Gratulation, Sie sind am absoluten Ende angekommen.
Ab hier gibt es keine weiteren Links mehr.
Alle Webseiten sind hier zu Ende.
Sie haben alles gesehen.
September 12th, 2012 by Mathias Buerk
Es hat sich viel getan seit dem ersten Prisma 2009. Plattformen kamen und gingen. Und so gab es auch dieses Mal wieder einige Änderungen.
Die wichtigsten gleich vorweg: Die Aufnahme von “Apps (mobile)” in unser Social Media Prisma spiegelt die hohe Nutzung von Smartphones wieder. Über 50% aller Facebook-User gehen über ihr Mobiltelefon online aber auch Twitter und Google Plus sind mobil weit verbreitet. Services wie Instagram spielen für Social Media eine Rolle, die nicht als zu gering einzuschätzen ist, aber auch Foodspotting, Runtastic, Pocket und Flipboard sind eine enorme Bereicherung für die Social Media Nutzung.
“Social Media Tools” ist insbesondere für Social Media Profis von Bedeutung. Mit ihnen lassen sich die Vielzahl an Kanälen effizient managen ohne den Überblick zu verlieren. Dienste wie Klout, Kred, Tweetgrader & Co. trennen in dieser Überfülle an Social Media Nutzern dabei die Spreu vom Weizen. Wer hat wirklich etwas zu sagen in Social Media? Welche Companies haben eine wirklich hohe Reichweite? Und wer ist in welcher Branche ein wahrer Influencer? Und so fand auch die Kategorie “Influence” Eingang in unser Social Media Prisma Version 5.0.
Dafür nahmen wir die Kategorie “Blog Search” heraus und fassten “Reviews / Ratings” und “Special Interest Reviews” ebenso zusammen wie “Browser Gaming” und “Social Gaming”. Auch dank Eurer Hinweise berücksichtigten wir bestimmte Plattformen, während andere hinaus fielen. Deshalb freuen wir uns auch dieses Mal wieder über eure Kommentare. “Crowdsourced Content” eben.
Hunderte neuer Internetendungen werden in diesem Jahr freigeschaltet. Das soll für mehr Vielfalt und Wettbewerb im Netz sorgen, in dem freie Domains mit den Jahren immer knapper wurden. Doch wie so vieles im Internet werden sie höchst ungleich verteilt sein.
Insgesamt etwa 1.930 Bewerbungen um neue Internetendungen sind im Jahr 2012 bei der globalen Internetbehörde Icann eingegangen; in diesem Jahr werden sie vergeben. In 675 Fällen geht es um Markenendungen wie .audi oder .lidl, auf die Markeninhaber exklusiv Zugriff haben. Es bleiben 1.255 Bewerbungen um öffentlich zugängliche Top-Level-Domains (TLDs). Mehr als die Hälfte stammen von sechs Massenbewerbern. Die klassischen im Netz dominanten Konzerne Google und Amazon zählen dazu, die neuen Internetendungen bringen aber auch neue Mächtige hervor. Ein Überblick.
Ab Oktober 2008 will die "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN") zum dritten Mal Bewerbungen um neue Internetadresszonen entgegennehmen, dann in einem Standardverfahren, das für die kommenden Jahre eine regelmäßige Einführung neuer Adresszonen erlauben soll. Nach ".biz", ".museum", ".info" oder zuletzt ".asia" und ".tel" sollen ".com", ".net" und ".org" weitere Konkurrenten bekommen. Für April kündigte Kurt Pritz, Vizepräsident der ICANN, beim Treffen der privaten Netzverwalter in Delhi einen Entwurf der Ausschreibungsbedingungen (PDF-Datei) an. ICANNs Vorstand forderte das hauptamtliche Büro auf, rasch die ausstehenden Fragen für die Erweiterung des Namensraums zu klären.
The "main page" of a Web site. Typically, the "home page" serves as an index or table of contents to other documents stored at the site.
A "domain name" is made up of two parts, separated by a period, like this: "domainname.com" Technically, this is actually two domains, as you will see, but that's too picky for this type of description!
The part following the period is known as the "Top Level Domain", or "TLD". In this example the TLD is "com" - known as "dot com" because it always follows the period (dot). Every DNS Resolver has addresses for "Root" DNS resolvers. These Root resolvers point to computers that can resolve the Top Level Domains. In our example, they would point to one that knows about ".com"s, which would in turn have the address of the system that knows about "domainname". The ".com" resolver is given the information about "domainname" when "domainname" is registered as "domainname.com". This updating is performed by a group of service providers known as "Domain Name Registrars". You go to a Registrar and register your domain name. When you do, they update the TLD resolvers.
A "domain name" is basically a Web site address. For example, "washingtonpost.com" is the address of the Washington Post Web site; it's also the site's domain name.
The entire Web address, i.e., "http://www.washingtonpost.com", is known as the "URL" ("Uniform Resource Locator").
There are three "levels" of domain names.
There are three different categories of TLDs:
- The first level (also "TLD", "top-level domain"), is the "extension" part of the name, i.e. ".com".
- The second level would be "washingtonpost.com".
- The third level would be "www.washingtonpost.com".
Generic top-level domains are the ones most frequently seen on the Web:
- "generic top-level domains" ("gTLD"),
- "country code top-level domains" ("ccTLD") and
- "infrastructure top-level domains".
The next top-level domains are the two letter country codes.
- ".com" (originally intended for use by commercial organizations but is available to anyone).
- ".net" (originally intended for use by sites directly related to the Internet but is available to anyone).
- ".org" (originally intended for use by non-profit organizations but is available to anyone).
- ".edu" (used by educational organizations).
- ".gov" (reserved for agencies of the United States government).
- ".mil" (reserved for the United States military).
- ".int" (reserved for international organizations established by treaty.)
- ".aero" (reserved for members of the air transport industry).
- ".biz" (for use by businesses only).
- ".coop" (reserved for cooperative associations).
- ".museum" (reserved for museums).
- ".name" (reserved for individuals).
- ".pro" (being developed for professionals and related entities).
The top-level domain infrastructure is limited to ".arpa" and is used exclusively for Internet-infrastructure purposes. The .arpa designation comes from the United States Department of Defense "Advanced Research Projects Agency", the government agency which formulated the Internet.
In addition to the domain name, there is also another address for a Web site: the "IP" ("Internet Protocol") number. This is the actual address computers use to connect to the site through the Internet. It is directly linked to the domain name and is regulated by the "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN").
The "domain name" and the "IP address" act in the same way. Each computer connected to the Internet is assigned a unique number known as an "IP address". Developed in the early 1970's, this number serves as the computer's Internet address. An IP address can be either static (permanent) or dynamic (temporary). Most home computers use a dynamic IP address while servers and many other computers use a static IP address. An IP address looks like this: "18.104.22.168". If you were to enter that number in the address bar of your Web browser, you would reach the Web site of the Washington Post.
When you enter "washingtonpost.com" into the address bar of your browser, the computer does a search of the "domain name system" ("DNS"), which is maintained by the "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("ICANN"). The domain name is then translated into the "IP number" and the computer connects with the Web site.
Registering Domain Names
A "domain name" is nothing more than an alias for the "IP address" of your Web site.
This article originally appeared on WebReference.com.
- Country Codes
- Internet Protocol
- DNS Gateways
- WebDeveloper.com Domain Forum
- The List of Web Hosts
- The Essential Guide to Selecting a Domain Name
- How to Transfer Domain Ownership
- Preventing "Para-Sites" is Cheap and Easy An excellent article about the perils of letting your domain name expire.
- The Domain Name System
- ICANN Glossary
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsible for the global coordination of the DNS Root, IP addressing, and other Internet protocol resources. Learn more about what we do »
Dedicated to preserving the central coordinating functions of the global Internet for the public good.
Domain Name Services | IANA ccTLD Database | Generic Top-Level Domains | Protocol Number Assignment Services (Current protocol parameter registries are listed here) | Application Forms | IANA Repository of TLD IDN Practices | Procedures | IP Address Services | Most Popular Links (Port numbers, root zone hints file, etc.) | Links To Community Members | Public Comments | Reports | Abuse Issues and IP Addresses | Contact us | Reporting and Statistics
- .ac - Ascension Island
- .ad - Andorra
- .ae - United Arab Emirates
- .af - Afghanistan
- .ag - Antigua and Barbuda
- .ai - Anguilla
- .al - Albania
- .am - Armenia
- .ao - Angola
- .aq - Antarctica
- .ar - Argentina
- .as - American Samoa
- .at - Austria
- .au - Australia
- .aw - Aruba
- .az - Azerbaijan
- .ax - Aland Islands
- .ba - Bosnia and Herzegovina
- .bb - Barbados
- .bd - Bangladesh
- .be - Belgium
- .bf - Burkina Faso
- .bg - Bulgaria
- .bh - Bahrain
- .bi - Burundi
- .bj - Benin
- .bm - Bermuda
- .bn - Brunei Darussalam
- .bo - Bolivia
- .br - Brazil
- .bs - Bahamas
- .bt - Bhutan
- .bv - Bouvet Island
- .bw - Botswana
- .by - Belarus
- .bz - Belize
- .ca - Canada
- .cd - Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
- .cf - Central African Republic
- .cg - Congo, Republic of
- .ch - Switzerland
- .ci - Cote d'Ivoire
- .ck - Cook Islands
- .cl - Chile
- .cm - Cameroon
- .cn - China
- .co - Colombia
- .cr - Costa Rica
- .cs - Serbia and Montenegro
- .cu - Cuba
- .cv - Cape Verde
- .cx - Christmas Island
- .cy - Cyprus
- .cz - Czech Republic
- .de - Germany
- .dk - Denmark
- .dm - Dominica
- .do - Dominican Republic
- .dz - Algeria
- .ec - Ecuador
- .ee - Estonia
- .eg - Egypt
- .eh - Western Sahara
- .er - Eritrea
- .es - Spain
- .et - Ethiopia
- .eu - European Union
- .fi - Finland
- .fj - Fiji
- .fm - Micronesia, Federal State of
- .fr - France
- .ga - Gabon
- .gb - United Kingdom
- .gd - Grenada
- .ge - Georgia
- .gf - French Guiana
- .gg - Guernsey
- .gh - Ghana
- .gi - Gibraltar
- .gl - Greenland
- .gm - Gambia
- .gn - Guinea
- .gp - Guadeloupe
- .gq - Equatorial Guinea
- .gr - Greece
- .gt - Guatemala
- .gu - Guam
- .gw - Guinea-Bissau
- .gy - Guyana
- .hk - Hong Kong
- .hm - Heard and McDonald Islands
- .hn - Honduras
- .hr - Croatia/Hrvatska
- .ht - Haiti
- .hu - Hungary
- .id - Indonesia
- .ie - Ireland
- .il - Israel
- .im - Isle of Man
- .in - India
- .io - British Indian Ocean Territory
- .iq - Iraq
- .ir - Iran, Islamic Republic of
- .is - Iceland
- .it - Italy
- .je - Jersey
- .jm - Jamaica
- .jo - Jordan
- .jp - Japan
- .ke - Kenya
- .kg - Kyrgyzstan
- .kh - Cambodia
- .ki - Kiribati
- .km - Comoros
- .kn - Saint Kitts and Nevis
- .kp - Korea, Democratic People's Republic
- .kr - Korea, Republic of
- .kw - Kuwait
- .ky - Cayman Islands
- .kz - Kazakhstan
- .la - Lao People's Democratic Republic
- .lb - Lebanon
- .lc - Saint Lucia
- .li - Liechtenstein
- .lk - Sri Lanka
- .lr - Liberia
- .ls - Lesotho
- .lt - Lithuania
- .lu - Luxembourg
- .lv - Latvia
- .ly - Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
- .ma - Morocco
- .mc - Monaco
- .md - Moldova, Republic of
- .me - Montenegro
- .mg - Madagascar
- .mh - Marshall Islands
- .mk - Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
- .ml - Mali
- .mm - Myanmar
- .mn - Mongolia
- .mo - Macau
- .mp - Northern Mariana Islands
- .mq - Martinique
- .mr - Mauritania
- .ms - Montserrat
- .mt - Malta
- .mu - Mauritius
- .mv - Maldives
- .mw - Malawi
- .mx - Mexico
- .my - Malaysia
- .mz - Mozambique
- .na - Namibia
- .nc - New Caledonia
- .ne - Niger
- .nf - Norfolk Island
- .ng - Nigeria
- .ni - Nicaragua
- .nl - Netherlands
- .no - Norway
- .np - Nepal
- .nr - Nauru
- .nu - Niue
- .nz - New Zealand
- .om - Oman
- .pa - Panama
- .pe - Peru
- .pf - French Polynesia
- .pg - Papua New Guinea
- .ph - Philippines
- .pk - Pakistan
- .pl - Poland
- .pm - Saint Pierre and Miquelon
- .pn - Pitcairn Island
- .pr - Puerto Rico
- .ps - Palestinian Territories
- .pt - Portugal
- .pw - Palau
- .py - Paraguay
- .qa - Qatar
- .re - Reunion Island
- .ro - Romania
- .rs - Republik Serbien
- .ru - Russian Federation
- .rw - Rwanda
- .sa - Saudi Arabia
- .sb - Solomon Islands
- .sc - Seychelles
- .sd - Sudan
- .se - Sweden
- .sg - Singapore
- .sh - Saint Helena
- .si - Slovenia
- .sj - Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
- .sk - Slovak Republic
- .sl - Sierra Leone
- .sm - San Marino
- .sn - Senegal
- .so - Somalia
- .sr - Suriname
- .st - Sao Tome and Principe
- .sv - El Salvador
- .sy - Syrian Arab Republic
- .sz - Swaziland
- .tc - Turks and Caicos Islands
- .td - Chad
- .tf - French Southern Territories
- .tg - Togo
- .th - Thailand
- .tj - Tajikistan
- .tk - Tokelau
- .tl - Timor-Leste
- .tm - Turkmenistan
- .tn - Tunisia
- .to - Tonga
- .tp - East Timor
- .tr - Turkey
- .tt - Trinidad and Tobago
- .tv - Tuvalu
- .tw - Taiwan
- .tz - Tanzania
- .ua - Ukraine
- .ug - Uganda
- .uk - United Kingdom
- .um - United States Minor Outlying Islands
- .us - United States
- .uy - Uruguay
- .uz - Uzbekistan
- .va - Holy See (Vatican City State)
- .vc - Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
- .ve - Venezuela
- .vg - Virgin Islands, British
- .vi - Virgin Islands, U.S.
- .vn - Vietnam
- .vu - Vanuatu
- .wf - Wallis and Futuna Islands
- .ws - Western Samoa
- .ye - Yemen
- .yt - Mayotte
- .yu - Yugoslavia
- .za - South Africa
- .zm - Zambia
- .zw - Zimbabwe
To reach another person on the Internet you have to type an address into your computer - a name or a number. That address has to be unique so computers know where to find each other. ICANN coordinates these unique identifiers across the world. Without that coordination we wouldn't have one global Internet.
ICANN was formed in 1998. It is a not-for-profit public-benefit corporation with participants from all over the world dedicated to keeping the Internet secure, stable and interoperable. It promotes competition and develops policy on the Internet’s unique identifiers.
ICANN doesn’t control content on the Internet. It cannot stop spam and it doesn’t deal with access to the Internet. But through its coordination role of the Internet’s naming system, it does have an important impact on the expansion and evolution of the Internet.
- Advisory Committee
- AfriNIC - The Afican Network Information Center
- ALAC - At-Large Advisory Committee
- ARIN - American Registry for Internet Numbers
- ASO - Address Supporting Organization
- ccNSO - The Country-Code Names Supporting Organization
- CCTLD - Country Code Top Level Domain
- Domain Name Resolvers
- DNS - Domain Name System
- GAC - Governmental Advisory Committee
- gTLD - Generic Top Level Domain
- GNSO - Generic Names Supporting Organization
- IANA - Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
- ICANN - The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
- IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
- IP - Internet Protocol
- ISOC - The Internet Society
- ISP - Internet Service Provider
- LACNIC - Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry
- RGP - Redemption Grace Period
- RIR - Regional Internet Registry
- RIPE and RIPE NCC - Réseaux IP Européens
- Root Servers
- SSAC - Security and Stability Advisory Committee
- SO - Supporting Organizations
- UDRP - Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy
- W3C - World Wide Web Consortium
- WIPO - World Intellectual Property Organization
... "Icannesisch". Das ist die Sprache der "Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers" ("Icann"), die privat, konsensual, beinahe basisdemokratisch und dementsprechend streitfreudig das Internet regiert. ...
... Die "Icannianer" haben es geschafft, eine Art weltweiter Internet-Gerichtsbarkeit zu schaffen, auch wenn es dabei lediglich um den häufig sinnlos anmutenden Streit bei der Durchsetzung von Markennamen als Internet-Adressen geht.
Ende Juni hat das Icann-Board (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) auf der internationalen Icann-Tagung in Paris eine Empfehlung angenommen, wonach eine ganze Palette von neuen Endungen in das bestehende Internet-Adressen-System aufgenommen werden soll. Die bisher bekannten Endungen für Internetadressen wie .info, .org, .com können ergänzt werden durch branchenspezifische Endungen (zum Beispiel .travel für die Reiseindustrie) oder Endungen für bestimmte Städte (zum Beispiel .berlin für Berlin) sowie Regionen (zum Beispiel .bzh für die Bretagne). Zukünftig soll es nicht mehr nur Adressen mit römischen Buchstaben geben, sondern auch andere Schriften werden berücksichtigt.
Welche Internet-Namen es bald tatsächlich geben wird, hängt davon ab, welche Vorschläge bei Icann offiziell eingehen. Grundsätzlich kann sich jeder mit Vorschlägen bewerben, der auch die entsprechenden Voraussetzungen für die Verwaltung und Vergabe der von ihm vorgeschlagenen Endung mitbringt. Icann plant solche Bewerbungen ab der 2. Jahreshälfte 2009 entgegen zu nehmen. Wie die Umsetzung sowie die Auswahlkriterien im Einzelnen aussehen werden, muss bei Icann noch entschieden werden. Ein genauer Einführungsplan soll Anfang 2009 veröffentlicht werden.
This page demonstrates the translation of native characters entered in Unicode to Punycode and from Punycode back to native characters as defined by RFC 3491, RFC 3492, and RFC 3454.
"Internationalized Domain Names" (IDNs) are domain names represented by local language characters. Such domain names could contain letters or characters from non-ASCII scripts (for example, Arabic or Chinese). Many efforts are ongoing in the Internet community to make domain names available in character sets other than ASCII.
These "internationalized domain name" ("IDN") efforts were the subject of a 25 September 2000 resolution by the ICANN Board of Directors, which recognized "that it is important that the Internet evolve to be more accessible to those who do not use the ASCII character set", and also stressed that "the internationalization of the Internet's domain name system must be accomplished through standards that are open, non-proprietary, and fully compatible with the Internet's existing end-to-end model and that preserve globally unique naming in a universally resolvable public name space."
This area is designed to document the progress of the implementation of IDNs as well as allow for discussion of issues encountered in implementation.
Internationalized Domain Names - Glossary
In an attempt to ensure that discussions regarding IDNs take place in a consistent manner ICANN has published an IDN Glossary. The glossary terms can be used freely and is expected to be expanded over time. If you have suggestions for additions and/or changes to the glossary please submit these to email@example.com. Comments will be posted publicly in the discussion forum at http://forum.icann.org/lists/idn-glossary/.
Historically, domain names on the Internet were restricted to using a limited set of ASCII characters (i.e. a-z, 0-9 and "-"). However, with the increasing use of the Internet in all regions and by diverse linguistic groups of the world, the demand for multilingual domain names has become more intense. Various acronyms are used widely in communications around internationalizing the domain name space. Explanations for many of these acronyms are provided below to help make this topic simpler to understand.
ACE (ASCII Compatible Encoding)
ACE is a system for encoding Unicode so each character can be transmitted using only a limited set of ASCII characters (i.e. a-z, 0-9 and "-"). This is used because applications that use the DNS protocol may not reliably handle other values. "ASCII" ("American Standard Code for Information Interchange").
For the purposes of discussing IDNs, a ”character” can best be seen as the basic graphic unit of a writing system, which is a script plus a set of rules determining how it is used for representing a specific language. However, domain labels do not convey any intrinsic information about the language with which they are intended to be associated, although they do reveal the script on which they are based. This language dependency can unfortunately not be eliminated by restricting the definition to script because in several cases (see examples below) languages that share the same script differ in the way they regard its individual elements. The term character can therefore not be defined independently of the context in which it is used.
In phonetically based writing systems, a character is typically a letter or represents a syllable, and in ideographic systems (or alternatively, pictographic or logographic systems) a character may represent a concept or word.
The following examples are intended to illustrate that the definition of a character is at least two-fold, one being a linguistic base unit and the other is the associated code point.
U-label ? : Jiu; the Chinese word for 'alcoholic beverage'; Unicode code point is U+9152 (also referred to as: CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9152); A-label is xn—jj4
U-label ?? : the Chinese word for ‘Beijing’, Unicode codepoints are U+5300 U+4EAC; A-label is xn—1lq90i
U-label ?? : Japanese word for ‘Tokyo’, the Unicode code points are U+6771 U+4EAC; A-label is xn—1lqs71d
U-label ???; Farsi acronym for ICOM, Unicode code points are U+0627 U+06CC U+0643 U+0648 U+0645; A-label is xn—mgb0dgl27d.
DNS (Domain Name System)
The DNS makes using the Internet easier by allowing a familiar string of letters (the "domain name") to be used instead of the arcane IP address. So instead of typing 22.214.171.124, you can type www.internic.net.
IDNA (Internationalized Domain Names in Application)
IDNA is a protocol defined in RFC 3490 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (http://www.ietf.org) that makes it possible for applications to handle domain names with non-ASCII characters. IDNA converts domain name strings with non-ASCII characters to ASCII domain name labels that applications that use the DNS can accurately understand. Not all characters used in the world's languages will be available for use in domain names. Hence IDNA is not able to convert all such characters into ASCII labels.
IDN (Internationalized Domain Name)
IDNs are domain names represented by local language characters. Such domain names could contain characters with diacritical marks as required by many European languages, or characters from non-Latin scripts (for example, Arabic or Chinese).
IDNs made the domain name label as it is displayed and viewed by the end user different from that transmitted in the DNS. To avoid confusion the following terminology is used:
The A-label is what is transmitted in the DNS protocol and this is the ASCII-compatible (ACE) form of an IDNA string; for example "xn--11b5bs1di". The U-label is what should be displayed to the user and is the representation of the Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) in Unicode; for example " ??? " ("test" version in Hindi, Devanagari script ). Lastly, the LDH-label strictly refers to an all-ASCII label that obeys the "hostname" (LDH) conventions and that is not an IDN; for example "icann" in the domain name "icann.org".
(The above label definition are extracted from: (E?)(L?) http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-klensin-idnabis-issues-01.txt
IDN SLDs or IDN 2LDs
Usually a reference for domain names with local characters at the second level, while the top level remains in ASCII-only characters. For example: [pa??de??µa .test] ("example.test" in Greek).
An IDN Table is a table listing all those characters that a particular TLD registry supports. If one or more of these characters are considered a variant this is indicated next to that/those characters. It is also indicated which character a particular character is a variant to. The variant tables usually holds characters representing a specific language, or they can be characters from a specific script. Therefore the variant table is sometimes referred to as 'language variant table', language table', script table' or something similar.
Usually the short reference for internationalized top-level domains, thus allowing the entire domain name to be represented by local characters. For example: [??.???] ("example.test" in Hangul).
A label is an individual part of a domain name. Labels are usually shown separated by dots; for example, the domain name "example.com" is composed of two labels: "example", and "com".
Languages | Scripts | Alphabets
Languages are used by speech communities. Scripts are used to write down information in the various languages and this is done by using the corresponding alphabets or alternative writing systems.
LDH (Letter, Digit, Hyphen)
The hostname convention defined in RFC 952 (later modified by RFC 1123) was used by top-level domain Registries before internationalization. This meant that domain names could only practically contain the letters a-z, digits 0-9 and the hyphen "-". The term "LDH code points" refers to this subset. With the introduction of IDNs this rule is no longer relevant for all domain names although with the use of IDNA, what appears in the DNS remains LDH.
Punycode is the LDH-compatible encoding algorithm described in Internet standard [RFC3492], and in use today. This is the method that is used to encode IDNs into sequences of LDH ASCII characters in order for applications using the Domain Name System (DNS) to understand and manage the names. The intention is that domain name registrants and users will never see this encoded form of a domain name. The sole purpose is for the DNS to be able to resolve for example a URL containing local characters. For examples see A-label under "IDN".
The prefix in a Punycode A-label is always "xn--". Hence this prefix is recommended to be reserved by top-level domain Registries in order to avoid confusion when/if registrations of IDNs are introduced under the respective top level domain.
A script is a collection of symbols used for writing a language. There are three basic kinds of script. One is the alphabetic (e.g. Arabic, Cyrillic, Latin) and its individual elements are termed "letters". A second is ideographic (e.g. Chinese), the elements of which are "ideographs". The third is termed a syllabary (e.g. Hangul) and its individual elements represent syllables. The writing systems of most languages use only one script but there are exception such as for example, Japanese that uses four different scripts, representing all three of the categories listed here.
In order to be used in the computing environment, each element of a script needs to be numerically encoded. A collection of symbols numbered in this fashion is called a "character set". A character set may include more than one script (e.g. the "Universal Character Set", popularly known as Unicode), or it may be restricted to a single script (e.g. US-ASCII, which to be correct does not even cover the entire Latin script). A rigorous distinction must be made between scripts and character sets.
The only character set relevant to IDNA is Unicode. This assigns a numerical "code point" and a "character name" to every element of every script. The script-based policies that ICANN attaches to IDNs will operate on the names of the scripts that appear in Unicode character names, or on the blocks in the Unicode Code Chart that are similarly headed with script names. These script names are apparent at http://www.unicode.org/charts/.
It is important to note that scripts which do not appear in the Unicode Code Chart are completely unavailable for inclusion in IDNs.
The Unicode Consortium
A not-for-profit organization founded to develop, extend and promote use of the Unicode standard. For more information, please visit http://www.unicode.org.
Unicode is a commonly used single encoding scheme that provides a unique number for each character across a wide variety of languages and scripts. The Unicode standard contains tables that list the "code points" (unique numbers) for each local character identified. These tables continue to expand as more and more characters are digitalized.
In Unicode, characters are assigned codes that uniquely define every character in many of the scripts in the world. These "code points" are unique numbers for a character or some character aspect such as an accent mark or ligature. Unicode supports more than a million code points, which are written with a "U" followed by a plus sign and the unique number in hexadecimal notation; for example, the word "Hello" is written U+0048 U+0065 U+006C U+006C U+006F.
An acronym for "Uniform Resource Locator", a string that describes the address of documents and other resources on the Internet. Defined by the IETF in RFC 2396, a URL is comprised of two parts separated by a colon (":"). The first part of the address indicates what protocol to use, e.g., http, ftp, etc., and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located.
UTF-8 -bit Unicode Transformation Format is a system for encoding Unicode so each character can be transmitted using 8-bit numerical values. This is commonly used as 8-bit data transmission is prevalent on the Internet.
Do you know what happens in one minute on the Internet? In just one minute, more than 204 million emails are sent. Amazon rings up about $83,000 in sales. Around 20 million photos are viewed and 3,000 uploaded on Flickr. At least 6 million Facebook pages are viewed around the world. And more than 61,000 hours of music are played on Pandora while more than 1.3 million video clips are watched on YouTube.
"internet" (n.) 1984, "the linked computer networks of the U.S. Defense Department," shortened from "internetwork", "inter-network", which was used from 1972 in reference to (then-hypothetical) networks involving many separate computers. From "inter-" "between" + "network" (n.). Associated Press style guide decapitalized it from 2016.
Das "Internet" geht, zumindest als Begriff, auf das Jahr 1974 zurück. Es entwickelte sich aus dem "ARPANET", das 1969 geschaffen wurde, sowie aus früheren Experimenten in der Computervernetzung. Das "Web" entstand 1991 als Kommunikationsmedium für Physiker.
History of Information
Internet & Networking Timeline
- The Earliest Fictional Account of a Universal Library, Foreshadowing the Virtual Library on the Internet - 1901
- An Early Sci-Fi View of the Internet and Virtual Reality - November 1909
- Corning Glass Introduces Optical Fibers Enabling the Internet Backbone - 1970 - 1977
- Invention of the Word "Internet" - Circa 1973 - Around 1973 Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn invented the word "Internet" as an abbreviation for the "inter-networking of networks" (Segaller, Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet  111).
- Fictional Vision of the Electronic Book and the Internet - 1978 - 1979
- There are Over 1000 Hosts on the Internet - 1984
- The First Registered Internet Domain - March 15, 1985
- The Internet Backbone is Funded and Created - 1986 - 1987
- There are Over 10,000 Hosts on the Internet - 1987
- There are over 100,000 Hosts on the Internet - 1989
- The First Gateways Between Private E-Mail Carriers and the Internet - 1989
- An Internet-Based Hypertext System: Conceptual Origin of the World Wide Web - March 1989
- ARPANET Folds into the Internet - 1990
- The Internet Society - 1992
- There are 50 Web Servers on the Internet - 1992
- 341,634 Percent Growth Rate on the Internet - 1993
- First Library of Digital Images on the Internet - 1993
- Only About 2000 People in China Use the Internet - 1993
- Estimate of Total Internet Traffic in 1993 - 1993
- There are 250 Web Servers on the Internet - 1993
- The Beginning of Video Webcasting over the Internet - June 1993
- The Size and Growth Rate of the Internet in 1993 - November 3, 1993
- Internet Traffic Passes 10 Trilliam Bytes per Month - 1994
- The First Demonstration of Wireless Internet Access - 1994
- The First Internet Cafe - March 12 - March 13, 1994
- First Internet Radio Broadcast Occurs - May 3 - May 5, 1994
- The First Traditional Radio Station to Initiate Internet Broadcasts - November 7, 1994
- The First Internet Only Broadcast of a Live Band - November 10, 1994
- There are Approximately 73,500 Servers; WWW is Generally Equated with the Internet - 1995
- ABC's "World News Now" Becomes the First Television Show Broadcast over the Internet - November 23, 1995
- Brewster Kahle Founds the Internet Archive - 1996
- The Internet2 Consortium - 1997
- The Internet is Entitled to the Full Protection Given to Printed Material - June 26, 1997
- Voice Over Internet Protocol is Implemented - 1998
- The First Interactive Internet Streaming TV Network - 1998 - August 2000
- Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Promulgated - December 1998
- The First Full Internet Service on Cell Phones in Japan - 1999
- The Size of the Internet in 2000 - 2000
- There are 20,000,000 Websites on the Internet. - September 2000
- Safeguarding Internet Security in China - December 28, 2000
- Foundation of the Oxford Internet Institute - 2001
- The Size of the Internet in 2002 - 2002
- 800,000,000 People are Using the Internet - 2004
- There are 50,000,000 Websites on the Internet - May 2004
- Use of Internet in China in 2005 - 2005
- "From Gutenberg to the Internet" - 2005
- Development and State Control of the Chinese Internet - April 14, 2005
- A Research Library Based on Historical Collections of the Internet Archive - February 2006
- 21.9% of the World's People Use the Internet - June 30, 2008
- In 2008 China Becomes the Top User of the Internet - January 14, 2009
- BitTorrent was Responsible for 27-55% of All Internet Traffic - February 2009
- Piracy of Internet Filtering Software? - June 13, 2009
- 1.7 Billion Internet Users - September 30, 2009
- The Largest Study of Global Internet Traffic Since the Beginning of the Commercial Internet - October 19, 2009
- Google Represents 6% of All Internet Traffic - October 19, 2009
- Exploit Code for Attacks on Google Released on the Internet - January 15, 2010
- The First Internet Addresses in Non-Latin Characters - May 6, 2010
- Two Billion People Now Use the Internet Regularly - February 17, 2011
- Four Phases of Government Internet Surveillance and Censorship to Date - February 25, 2011
- An Interactive Map of the Internet Later Produced as an iPhone App - March 2011 - March 2013
- In May 2011 Netflix was the Largest Source of Internet Traffic in North America - May 2011
- McKinsey Report on the Impact of the Internet on Growth, Jobs, and Prosperity - May 2011
- "Physical Archiving is Still an Important Function in the Digital Era." The Internet Archive Builds an Archive of Physical Books - June 6, 2011
- "Anonymous" Plans to Shut Down Syrian Government Websites in Response to Countrywide Internet Blackout - November 29 - December 1, 2012
- 100% of U.S. Public Libraries Now Offer Public Access to the Internet - December 2012
- "The Web at 25 in the U.S." by the Pew Research Internet Project - February 27, 2014
From Gutenberg to the Internet: A Sourcebook on the History of Information Technology
Edited by Jeremy M. Norman
Brief History of the Internet
Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, Stephen Wolff
- Origins of the Internet
- The Initial Internetting
- Concepts Proving the Ideas
- Transition to Widespread Infrastructure
- The Role of Documentation
- Formation of the Broad Community
- Commercialization of the Technology
- History of the Future
- What Is the Internet?
- History of the Internet
- Brief History of the Internet
- A Brief History of the Internet & Related Networks
- IETF and the Internet Society
- Announcing the Internet Society
- Short History of the Internet
- Facts and Figures
- How it Works
- Who Makes it Work
- How Is the Internet Evolving?
- Global Internet User Survey
Origins of the Internet
The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing his "Galactic Network" concept. He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today. Licklider was the first head of the computer research program at DARPA,4 starting in October 1962. While at DARPA he convinced his successors at DARPA, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts, of the importance of this networking concept.
Keith Lynch's timeline of net related terms and concepts
In the December 2016 survey we received responses from 1,739,031,487 sites and 6,169,471 web-facing computers; this reflects a large increase of 302 million sites, but a small loss of 55,900 computers.
In the November 2016 survey we received responses from 1,436,724,046 sites and 6,225,374 web-facing computers, reflecting a gain of 7 million sites and 81,000 computers.
In the October 2016 survey we received responses from 1,429,331,486 sites and 6,144,093 web-facing computers. This reflects a large increase of 144 million sites, and a more modest increase of 25,300 computers.
In the September 2016 survey we received responses from 1,285,759,146 sites and 6,118,785 web-facing computers, reflecting large gains in both metrics: 132 million additional sites, and 138,000 more computers.
In the August 2016 survey we received responses from 1,153,659,413 sites and 5,980,524 web-facing computers. This reflects an increase of 80 million sites, but a loss of 78,000 computers.
In the July 2016 survey we received responses from 1,073,777,722 sites and 6,058,513 web-facing computers. This reflects an increase of 28 million sites and 107,000 computers.
In the June 2016 survey we received responses from 1,045,534,808 sites and 5,951,685 web-facing computers. This reflects an increase of 12 million sites, along with a modest gain of 4,700 computers.
In the May 2016 survey we received responses from 1,033,790,346 sites and 5,946,961 web-facing computers. This reflects a gain of 147,000 computers, coupled with a loss of 49 million sites.
In the April 2016 survey we received responses from 1,083,252,900 sites and 5,800,222 web-facing computers. This reflects a gain of nearly 80 million sites and 18,100 computers.
In the March 2016 survey we received responses from 1,003,887,790 sites and 5,782,080 web-facing computers. This reflects a gain of nearly 70 million sites, but a loss of 14,100 computers.
In the February 2016 survey we received responses from 933,892,520 sites and 5,796,210 web-facing computers.
In the January 2016 survey we received responses from 906,616,188 sites and 5,753,264 web-facing computers, reflecting a modest increase of less than six million sites, but a significant gain of 174,000 computers.
A map of the "Internet" in June, 1970. Wow, pretty simple.
Wie funktioniert das Internet? Wenn du diesen Text hier liest, besuchst du gerade die Maus auf ihrer Homepage und nutzt dazu das Internet. Und wie funktioniert das? Armin begibt sich auf die Spur der schnellen Daten.
Is Web and Internet the Same?
The "Internet" is not synonymous with "World Wide Web".
The "Internet" is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.
The "World Wide Web", or simply "Web", is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet.
The Difference Between the Internet and World Wide Web
Updated December 14, 2015 / Posted June 24, 2010
By Vangie Beal
Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (aka. the Web) interchangeably, but in fact the two terms are not synonymous. The Internet and the Web are two separate but related things.
What is The Internet?
The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. Information that travels over the Internet does so via a variety of languages known as protocols.
What is The Web (World Wide Web)?
The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet. The Web uses the HTTP protocol, only one of the languages spoken over the Internet, to transmit data. Web services, which use HTTP to allow applications to communicate in order to exchange business logic, use the the Web to share information. The Web also utilizes browsers, such as Internet Explorer or Firefox, to access Web documents called Web pages that are linked to each other via hyperlinks. Web documents also contain graphics, sounds, text and video.
Brief Timeline of the Internet
Last Updated May 24, 2007
When we talk about the "Internet", we talk about the "World Wide Web" from the past four or five years. But, its history goes back a lot further; all the way back to the 1950s and 60s.
"Where was I", you ask, "while all this was happening?" Well, it's quite simple really: the Space Program. America was so fascinated with sending men into outer space, hundreds of miles away, it never saw what was being invented to bring everyone closer together - eventually.
So, just in case you missed the development of the Internet, here is a brief timeline highlighting some of the major occurrences over the past 49 years that have shaped the Internet of today. For more extensive info, you'll find links to other timelines at the bottom of this page.
- 1958 - President Eisenhower requests funds to create ARPA. Approved as a line item in Air Force appropriations bill.
- April 2007 - Search engine giant Google surpasses Microsoft as "the most valuable global brand," and also is the most visited Web site.
The Internet is a global networking infrastructure that connects millions of computers together, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet.
From Internet protocols to Internet security and search engines, our Internet dictionary offers a glossary of important terms you need to know.
Internet Access | Internet Backbone | Internet Protocols | | Slang
- 133t speak | 24-7 | A3 - anytime, anywhere, anyplace | absolute unique visitor - Web Analytics | acronym | adjacency | ADSL | ADSL2+ | advermation | Agile Unified Process | alerts | allintitle | allinurl | Aloha | alpha geek | Alt tag | Alta Vista | Analog Telephone Adapter | anchor text | anonoblog | anonymous FTP | anticipointment | anycast | AOLese | APIPA - Automatic Private IP Addressing | APNIC | APOP | Archie | ARIN | ARP - Address Resolution Protocol | ARPANET | astroturfing | Atom | attwaction | auto correct fail | auto fill | AutoCorrect | Autocorrect Follies | average page depth - Web analytics | Average Revenue Per User | average time on site - Web Analytics |
- backbone provider | backlink | backronym | bagbiter | banana code | bandwidth hog | bandwidth shaping | barn doors | BBIAB | Berkeley Internet Name Domain | best practice | beyond-the-banner | BGP | Big Blue | Big Iron | Bing | bioidentification | BITNET | | blacklist | blaudience | blawg | | blog storm | blogola | blogroach | blook | Bluetool | bogon | bonded T1 | Boolean search | BOOTP - Bootstrap Protocol | BPL repeater | broadcast address | buddy list | burp | buzzword | BXXP - Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol |
- cable head-end | carrier's carrier | casters-up mode | ccTLD | CDF - channel definition format | cellphone novel | censorware | CGI - Common Gateway Interface | CGI form | channel bonding | chat abbreviation | cherry picker | chicken boner | chip jewelry | churn | CIDR - Classless Inter-Domain Routing | citizen journalism | clewbie | click-through | cloaking | CMTS | co-twitterer | cobot | cobweb site | comment spam | Common UNIX Printing System | comparison shopping engine | compooter | computer chips and salsa | computer stoned | connect time | connectile dysfunction | contextual advertising | crackberries | crapplet | creeping featurism | crisis blog | crowdsourcing | CTR - click-through rate | Cuil | CUPS | customer bounty | cXML | cyber | cyber crime | cyber forensics | cyberbuck | cyberbullying | cyberculture | cyberjockey | cyberlawyer | cyberloafing | cybernaut | cyberprise | cyberpublisher | cyberpunk | cybersquatting | cybersuicide | Cyberveillance | CYS | cytizenship |
- darknet | datagram | Datagram Congestion Control Protocol | DD | dead tree edition | deep link | deep pages | delisting | DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol | dial-up access | Dial-Up Networking | diffusing update algorithm | digital footprint | dilberted | DirecPC | DM - direct message | DMZ - demilitarized zone | DNS - Domain Name System | DNS SEC | DoCoMo | DOM - Document Object Model | domain name | dooce | doorway | doppelblogger | downstream | drexting | drop the pin | DSLAM - Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer | DSTP | DTCP-IP | duplicate content - SEO | dweet | dynamic NAT | dynamic URL |
- e-nag | E1 | early adopter | ego surfing | egress traffic | EIGRP - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol | electronic discovery | Electronic Frontier Foundation | Energy Star | enterprise search | enterprise whuffie | ESP | ETRN | Excite | extranet |
- faceosphere | facilities-based competition | fake copy listings | false drop | FAST TCP | fax over Internet Protocol | Federal Internet Exchange | File eXchange Protocol | Financial Information Exchange | finger | Firesheep | flame | flog | floodgater | FoIP | FOMC | FON | FQDN | fractional T-1 | fresh content | friendquest | FTP - file transfer protocol | FTP Server | FTTC | FTTH - fiber-to-the-home | FUD - fear, uncertainty and doubt | future-proof | fuzzy search | FXP |
- G.711 | G.721 | G.722 | G.723 | G.726 | G.727 | G.729 | G.7xx | G.lite | getUserMedia API | ghost site | gigaPOP | GigaPower | Gobi chipset | Google blips | | Google Dance | Google Profile | Google Sitemaps | Google Trends | Google+ (Google Plus) | Googlewhack | gopher | griefer | grok | GUIX |
- H.225 | H.245 | hacktivism | hactivism | hairball | Harlem Shake (in technology) | Heartbleed Bug | hidden keyword | HomePlug | hop | HotBot | HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol | HTTP request header | HTTP response header | HTTPD - HTTP daemon |
- IAC | IAHC | IANA | IAP - Internet Access Provider | IAX | ICANN - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers | ICF | ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol | ICS | id10t error | IDSL | IETF | IGMP | iHTML | IIS - Internet Information Server | Inbound link | index | influencer | Information and Content Exchange | Infoseek | ingress traffic | Inmarsat-4 satellite | Intarweb | Intercast | Interior Gateway Routing Protocol | internesia | Internet | Internet address | Internet Architecture Board | Internet game | Internet Key Exchange | Internet meme | Internet protocol television | Internet sharing | Internet Society | Internet2 | InterNIC | intranet | intranet suite | invisible text | invisible Web | IP - Internet Protocol | IP address - Internet Protocol (IP) address | IP blocking | IP Multicast | IP spoofing | IP switching | IPng - IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) | IPP | IPsec VPN | IRTF | iSCSI | ISP - Internet service provider | Its a feature | jailbreak |
- Journalism 2.0 | Jughead |
- K56flex | keyphrase | keyphrase movement | keyphrase position | keyword | keyword density | keyword frequency | keyword prominence | keyword search | keyword stuffing | Knol |
- L2TP | La Fonera | LACNIC | lamer | large send offload | Latent semantic indexing | Layer Two Forwarding |
- LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol | leased line | linerd | link building | link farming | link love | link popularity | listwashing | localhost | lock-in | LOL | loopback | loopback address | loss leader | LSI | Lunascape Web browser | Lycos |
- MAE | Magellan | manual submission | mashboard | Mbone | medical identity theft | messy URL | | | MGCP | microfilter | MicroHoo | microsite | Microsoft Mediaroom | MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions | mistweet | MLPPP | MMDS - Multi-channel Multi-point Distribution System | mobile broadband | Modbus TCP/IP | modular architecture | Monitter | mopy | moved to Atlanta | MP | MPLS - Multiprotocol Label Switching | multicast address |
- n00b | namespace | NAP | NAPT | NAS | NAT - Network Address Translation | | neglexting | Neo-Luddite | netizen | netroots | netscuse | network access server | network neutrality | new media | next hop | NGI Initiative | NNTP | nomophobia | NSFnet | NTP |
- OC - Optical Carrier | ODMR | off-page optimization | offline | | on-line | on-page optimization | OneDrive for Business | online | Open Settlement Protocol | Open Text | Operation Clandestine Fox - Internet Explorer vulnerability | Organic SEO | Osborne Effect | Outline Processor Markup Language |
- page impression | pagejacking | paid inclusion | paid search | PASV | paywall | PEBCAK | peeps | peering | personally identifiable information | PF | pharming | phonebook | photoshopping | phrase search | picnic | Pierre Salinger Syndrome | ping | ping of death | pink contract | pocket dial | POP - Post Office Protocol | PowerPacket | PPP | PPPoA | PPPoE | precision | presence | privacy statement | protocol | Protocol-Independent Multicast | proximity operator | proxy cache | PRW | PWOMS |
- Q.931 | QSIG | quality backlink | query string |
- RADIUS server | rank | RARP | RBGAN | RealAudio | Registration Admission Status | related | return | Retweet | Rich Snippets | RIP | RIPE NCC | robot | robots.txt | root server system | RSIP | RSVP | RTP - Real-Time Transport Protocol | RTP Control Protocol | RTSP |
- S-HTTP | S/MIME | SASL | satellite broadband | screenager | SDP | SDSL | | | searchandizing | selfie | | | SEO PR | SEO Spam | | session border controller | set-top box | sheepdip | shelfware | SIMPLE | SIP | SIP B | SIP proxy | siphoning | SIPphone | sitemap | sitewide | Slashdotted | SLIP | SMIL | SMO - social media optimization | SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol | smurf attack | sneezer | SNTP | social routing | SOCKS | Sofia-SIP | software modem | spaghetti marketing | spider | spider trap | split DNS | Splog | sploitz | sporn | SSL - Secure Sockets Layer | Start of Authority | static NAT | stop words | STUN | subdomain | super-speed Internet | supplemental index | swag | swicki | swivel chair interface | synchicity |
- T-1 carrier | T-3 carrier | targeted tweets | tarpitting | TCP - Transmission Control Protocol | TCP segmentation offload | TCP-Friendly Rate Control | TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol | | Telnet | textual harassment | TFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol | The Long Tail search | three-click rule | TLD - top-level domain | TLS - Transport Layer Security | top content - Web Analytics |
Robert Elliot "Bob" Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and peer-to-peer networks for file sharing.
Vinton Gray Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn. His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Marconi Prize and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.
"inter-", "intero-" - (Latin: "between"; "among", "mutually", "together"; "on the inside", "internal")
Although abstracted from the many compounds in which it entered English, the form "inter-" was not generally considered a living prefix in English until the 1400s.
During the later period of Middle English many words borrowed in the Old and Middle French forms "entre-", "enter-" began to be consciously respelled with Latin "inter-"; although vestiges of the older French borrowings are found in entertain and enterprise.
The living prefix "inter-" is now freely added to almost any element in English to create such formations with the meaning of "between" and "among". The words formed by "intra-" are closely related to this "inter-" prefix; in fact, they both apparently came from the same Latin source.
Based on information from Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology
"Internet": De-capitalizing the word
(the word "internet" is now a common noun, not a proper noun)
The capital "I" that usually begins the word "Internet" is now considered to be grammatically invalid.
Joseph Turow, professor at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, has started a crusade to de-capitalize "Internet".
Birth of the Internet
The Internet began as a Cold War project to create a communications network that was immune to a nuclear attack. In the 1969, the U.S. government created "ARPANET", connecting four western universities and allowing researchers to use the mainframes of any of the networked institutions. New connections were soon added to the network, bringing the number of "nodes" up to 23 in 1971, 111 in 1977, and up to almost 4 million in 1994. As the size of the network grew so did its capabilities: In its first 25 years, the Internet added features such as file transfer, email, Usenet news, and eventually HTML. Now, new developments come to the Net one right after the other. It is this explosive growth in recent years that has captured the imagination of computer users the world over.
This experiment brings together the power of Google Translate and the collective knowledge of Wikipedia to put into context the relationship between language and geographical space.
Do you put an initial capital letter on "Internet", or the related words "Net" and "Web"? This may seem a fussy, not to say pedantic, question. But it’s one that copy editors and those charged with creating the house styles for publishing firms must wrestle with in order to create text that looks consistent, avoids annoying or confusing readers, and quietly states that it forms part of a unified publication, whoever wrote the words.
3,538,054,805 - Internet Users in the world 1,130,942,618 - Total number of Websites 112,590,462,113 - Emails sent today 2,463,401,064 - Google searches today 2,297,366 - Blog posts written today 316,633,458 - Tweets sent today 2,869,974,014 - Videos viewed todayon YouTube 32,213,130 - Photos uploaded today on Instagram 50,703,894 - Tumblr posts today 1,804,027,033 - Facebook active users 490,408,844 - Google+ active users 307,216,539 - Twitter active users 181,220,769 - Pinterest active users 102,269,946 - Skype calls today 36,011 - Websites hacked today 284,696 - Computers sold today 1,964,254 - Smartphones sold today 247,609 - Tablets sold today 1,735,705,509 GB - Internet traffic today 1,633,488 MWh - Electricity used today for the Internet 1,445,565 tons - CO2 emissions today from the Internet
The map of the Internet
Like any other map, The Internet map is a scheme displaying objects’ relative position; but unlike real maps (e.g. the map of the Earth) or virtual maps (e.g. the map of Mordor), the objects shown on it are not aligned on a surface. Mathematically speaking, The Internet map is a bi-dimensional presentation of links between websites on the Internet. Every site is a circle on the map, and its size is determined by website traffic, the larger the amount of traffic, the bigger the circle. Users’ switching between websites forms links, and the stronger the link, the closer the websites tend to arrange themselves to each other.
In December (2008), the total global Internet audience surpassed one billion users, according to Internet traffic measurement firm comScore (NASDAQ: SCOR). In a new report, the research firm said that the Asia-Pacific region continues to claim the lion's share, accounting for 41 percent of Internet users worldwide -- about 416 million.
Europe came in second with about 283 million Internet users, accounting for 28 percent of the wired population. With 185 million users, North America came in third at 18.4 percent, comScore said. Latin America accounted for 7 percent of total users with 75 million, and the combined Middle East and Africa region together attained 5 percent share, or 49 million.
The Internet Traffic Report monitors the flow of data around the world. It then displays a value between zero and 100. Higher values indicate faster and more reliable connections.
The "Internet Protocol" ("IP") is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork.
"IP" is a network layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite and is encapsulated in a data link layer protocol (e.g., Ethernet). As a lower layer protocol, IP provides the service of communicable unique global addressing amongst computers.